1. Foodgrains Delivery Mechanism under SGRY : A Study in
The present study is an evaluation of the food grains delivery mechanism component
of Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) in three States-Chhattisgarh, Karnataka
and Maharashtra. Distribution of foodgrains as part of total wages to be paid under
the programme has been one of the major features of all the Wage Employment Programmes
implemented so far. Specially focussing attention on SGRY would help to understand
and appreciate the mechanics involved in the distribution of foodgrains and lessons
learnt from such an exercise would be useful for suggesting appropriate measures
for policy intervention. This study was taken up with the following objectives.
* To delineate different stages being adopted down the line for distribution of
foodgrains to workers;
* To understand and analyse the mechanism being followed and problems encountered
at each identified stage; and
* To identify any innovations introduced (as compared to what is envisaged) for
effective delivery of foodgrains.
Study Area and Methodology
To examine the above mentioned objectives secondary data were collected at the State
and district levels and also discussions were held with officials from the Government
and Food Corporation of India at these levels who are concerned with the implementation
of SGRY. However, primary data were collected to know the perceptions of the workers
about the quality and quantity of foodgrains supplied which were collected in December
2005 to February 2006. Three States namely Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Maharashtra
representing extreme situations in regard to distribution of foodgrains as identified
in the nation-wide study taken up during 2004-05 were selected. Two districts were
chosen from each selected State. While the first district was the one where the
distribution of foodgrains was very satisfactory as per the secondary data, the
second district was chosen from among those where the position in regard to the
distribution of foodgrains was less than satisfactory during last three years. Similar
criteria was shown in selection of districts, blocks as wells as villages. A sample
of twenty respondents in each village were taken for the study who participated
in SGRY during the period 2004-05. Thus, the total number of respondents covered
under the study was 480 in 3 States.
Even though the sample design for primary survey was not meant to be exactly representative,
but it was helpful to understand the results. The proportion of males in all the
districts of respective States taken together is as high as 88.3 per cent. One reason
for low female participation among SGRY wage employment beneficiaries could be that
males tend to replace females if wage rate is found to be higher in SGRY and female
beneficiaries mostly attend to domestic work.
Nearly half of wage employment beneficiary respondents are STs in sample districts
of three States followed by other caste group which constitutes 30 per cent and
SCs constitute 14.5 per cent. The data shows that the composition of SC/STs in wage
employment scheme in all the three States is representative as per SGRY guidelines.
The housing structure in the sample beneficiaries was mostly katcha housing (66.4
per cent). About 46 per cent of wage employment beneficiary respondents in all sample
districts of three States are agricultural labourers. Cultivators constitute 28.3
per cent. Interestingly, wage employment beneficiary in non-agricultural category
constitutes 25.3 per cent.
Programme Performance Indicators
The physical and financial achievements at aggregate level in the sample States
together reveal that more or less 90 per cent of the allocated funds have been utilised.
As regards to the asset creation in the sample districts, the number of works undertaken
and completed was 67.8 to 83.1 per cent. In all three sample States the foodgrains
lifting and utilisation was almost more than 93 per cent among three sample States,
the share of STs was 44.2 per cent in Chhattisgarh and SCs was 27.7 per cent in
Karnataka. The share of OBCs under study was more in Karnataka i.e. 61.8 per cent.
The data shows that in all three States taken for study the share of women employment
was more than 30 per cent, while the share of landless beneficiary was more in Maharashtra
(30.2 per cent) when compared to other two States.
The norm of minimum 5 kg of foodgrains and minimum of 25 per cent wages in cash
is followed. Foodgrains were received through a Public Distribution System. In Karnataka
and Chhattisgarh foodgrains are distributed through Panchayats. The lifting of foodgrains
in almost all the sample districts are through State Civil Supplies Corporation
but the method of lifting is not uniform in all the three sample States.
In Karnataka, the foodgrain transportation (form FCI godown to ZP, TP, GP) has been
outsourced to private transport contractors. At the district level, the Deputy Commissioner
follows the same procedure in appointing the transport contractors, to work under
Transportation of foodgrains from the State Civil Supplies Corporation to the PDS
in Chhattisgarh is the responsibility of Lead Society. The foodgrains are transported
to GP by BDO and the beneficiaries issued coupons. Monitoring and investigation
is to be done by officials of Food and Civil Supplies Department, Revenue Department
and PR and RD Department in the same manner as it is done in case of PDS foodgrains.
In Maharashtra, the foodgrains delivery is based on the requirements, ZP/DRDA releases
orders to the identified FCI office and a copy of the same is sent to the District
Civil Supplies Officer (DSO) who work under the District Collector. It is the responsibility
of DSO to lift and distribute the SGRY foodgrains to the PDS shops. The preference
for rice is prominent among SGRY beneficiaries in almost all the three States under
study. As far as the quality, quantity and periodicity of foodgrains is concerned,
more than 63 per cent of the beneficiaries in the sample States of Chhattisgarh,
Karnataka and Maharashtra stated that the quality, quantity and periodicity of foodgrains
is good and sufficient.
Beneficiary Awareness and Participation Level of
The level of awareness of beneficiaries is quite high in Karnataka while it is 50
per cent in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The major source of information were village
panchayat, informal leaders in the village and friends/relatives in all three sample
States. The beneficiaries’ involvement in the scheme is high in sample States in
the last three years. This means that wage employment scheme in all the three sample
States is determinant factor for livelihood of the poor especially in lean seasons.
The data also reveals that many beneficiaries in sample States are aware of the
notified minimum wage rate, through proactive role played by PRIs, NGOs in the form
of systematic campaigns which helped the beneficiaries to familiarise and enhance
their awareness levels. The wages are paid to the labourers on a fixed day on weekly
basis in the sample States under study. Interestingly, the payment of wages is also
made at work site (44.2 per cent), in most of the cases payments are made at Gram
Panchayat Office through Panchayat Secretary in presence of Sarpanch in all the
The wage employment beneficiaries interviewed have by and large received the stipulated
quantity of five kilogram of foodgrains. And most of the women beneficiaries expressed
that this norm has to be continued in future so that they can atleast feed their
family with some food security.
Some of the respondents expressed that food component has to be increased in total
SGRY wage component due to continuous drought situation.
Another problem faced by the beneficiary respondents is that they got work only
for one week.
The distribution of foodgrains through PDS shops is causing delay due to heavy burden
and improper maintenance of register. Hence, most of the labourers expressed that
the distribution of foodgrains should be done by Gram Panchayat to avoid delay in
* Some of the wage employment beneficiaries had no work for more than one week.
The Gram Panchayat workers are generating only short-term employment. To provide
employment for longer periods Gram Panchayat need to undertake more work to improve
the food security on a sustained basis and also reduce out-migration.
* The periodicity of foodgrains lifting and release of foodgrains from first instalment
to second instalment takes more time. This is also one of the reasons for late distribution
of foodgrains. The other reason is the stocking facility at taluka, block and GP
level, as there are no proper godown facilities available at taluka level and measures
have to be taken to provide proper godown facilities.
* The norm of minimum 5 kg of foodgrains and minimum of 25 per cent wages in cash
at national level is not always applicable to the ground level implementation. In
some States/districts the wages in cash and kind may differ to their local specific
problems. The sample survey of three States shows that whatever the norm of minimum
or maximum of 5 kg foodgrain/25 per cent cash should be determined at district/Gram
Panchayat level by DPs/DRDOs based on local and their specific needs.
* Chhattisgarh model of foodgrains delivery mechanism is found to be more efficient
than in other two States where more contractors are involved at various stages of
2. Right to Information and PRIs : An Analysis
of Salient Dimensions
S.K. Singh, K. Jayalakshmi, Y. Bhaskar Rao,
C.P. Vithal, E. Venkatesu and Jaya Patil
The Official Secrets Act, 1923 (a replica of the British Official Secrets Act, 1911),
enacted by British Government was a restrictive legislation more suitable to the
British Government to consolidate its hold administratively and also to control
resources in India. In the course of time, the British Official Secrets Act, 1911
was substantially reformed, but Indian version continued in its original form except
some minor amendments in 1967. Several activists groups started campaigning
towards right to information and several steps were taken to bring a comprehensive
legislation to this effect. Finally, it culminated into the Right to Information
Act 2005, providing space for any common citizen to know about the functioning of
any unit of governance.
The main thrust of some civil society Movement for the Right to Information was
closely related to survival, food security, etc. Such statutory right will bring
significant reform in public administration. An administration which presents a
picture of opaque rules and procedures, inordinate delays, public are harassed and
constantly vulnerable to exploitation. Therefore, the quest for systematic answer
to this chronic malaise and widespread corruption lies in a transparent, easily
accessible, accountable system of administration.
The civil society Movement on Right to Information culminated into passing of Right
to Information Act. Several States passed RTI Act namely Tamil Nadu (in 1997), Goa
(1997), Rajasthan (2000), Karnataka (2000), Delhi (2001), Maharashtra (2002), Assam
(2002), Madhya Pradesh (2003) and Jammu and Kashmir (2004). Finally, in order to
make it a national act, the Parliament has passed the Right to Information Act,
2005. The enactment of Acts does not ensure its optimum utilisation. It was deemed
appropriate to take up a study to examine the salient dimensions of Right to Information
Act passed by various States vis-a-vis Central Act and to see the gaps in
these Acts. The study analyses indepth the critical issues such as the need for
information from the perspective of relevant level of governance, setting out the
existing information regime, positive measures as
well as restriction on laws and practices, advocacy initiatives, etc. This study
was taken up at the cutting edge of administration, i.e., Panchayati Raj Institutions
and to examine how the provisions of RTI are applicable in the panchayat system
and how far the panchayat system became more transparent and accountable at each
level focussing on the operational aspects of RTI at the three tiers of panchayats.
* To trace developments with regard to the right to information covering various
aspects of public life and governance;
* To examine the provisions of laws, Acts and policies for a right to access to
information at Panchayat level and related issues;
* To analyse operational viability of laws, its utilisation and effectiveness at
Panchayat level and to identify impediments and problems faced by information seekers;
* To suggest measures to promote practice for the right to information and free
flow of information to the public.
Keeping in view the broad objectives of the study, States were selected on certain
parameters viz., the States which passed Right to Information Act, mechanism for
implementing the Act, number of persons seeking information, etc. As of now, several
States have passed the Right to Information act, for example, Goa has passed as
far back as in 1997. The specifications and the provisions of the Act vary across
the States. The purpose of this study was to make a comparative analysis of the
provisions of the Right to Information as also to bring uniformity and comprehensiveness
in the provisions of the Act. Another parameter was to examine the methods adopted
by the States in the implementation of the Act. On the basis of these broad parameters
five States were selected for indepth study viz., Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. In each State, the district was selected on the basis
of the highest number of information seekers. This data were taken at the State
level and the district was selected depending upon this. In Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu, two districts were selected and whereas in Rajasthan and Maharashtra
only one district was selected. After the selection of the district, within the
State on the basis of the highest number of information seekers, two blocks within
the district were selected for the study in each district and block. Depending upon
the number of persons applying to seek information, village panchayats were selected.
The selection was not uniform because the number of information seekers is less
in some districts, therefore, it was decided to take up one district in such States
and wherever it was more, two districts were selected.
For the purpose of indepth study, both primary and secondary data were collected
at State, district, block and Gram Panchayat level. The primary data were collected
through the survey method and a structured questionnaire was developed which was
administered to the samples of each category. Further, the officials, elected representatives,
activists, NGOs and the cross section of the society were interviewed. The PRA method
was adopted while discussing with the cross section of the society. In order to
elicit information from the people about their views and opinions on the RTI as
also its implementation and utility structured questionnaire was used to gain some
insights and their views, experiences and perceptions, particularly from the marginalised
group of people. A checklist was prepared to obtain information and data at various
levels, i.e. State, district, block and village Panchayat level functionaries. The
secondary data comprises, official records, documents, government orders, circulars,
and other published and unpublished literature available at the State level or even
at the national level. The research team also scanned and browsed through the list
of information seekers along with type of information they require and the reply
given to them and to locate the gaps in the process of implementation. While selecting
individual sample, the list of applicants was taken and individuals were randomly
selected to get their views on the entire process and the result of seeking information.
Some case studies were also taken up to highlight the success or failure or gaps
in the system. This case study in various States provides a vivid picture of the
implementation and utility of the Act. Some of the case studies are quite illustrious
in the sense that they narrated the entire procedure and the problems encountered
while seeking such information.
In the State of Rajasthan, the campaign launched by Mazdoor Kisaan Shakti Sangathan
(MKSS) for public hearing as an aid to accountability and thus struggle to access
information from Government with regard to the welfare schemes became so popular
that it finally culminated into enactment of State Right to Information Act.
The awareness level among the people and the officials as also the panchayat elected
representatives found to be high because the local NGOs were imparting training
on the subject. It is quite striking that all the sample respondents were aware
of RTI through Gram Sabha. The perception among people about RTI as a tool has resulted
in making panchayat system transparent, accountable and the system of social audit
could prevent and reduce corruption in the panchayat system. Therefore RTI is trying
to bring in the system of good governance at the grassroot level in the State. The
type of information sought by the people varied from malfunctioning of public distribution
system to the absence of doctors, teachers and officials from their duties. The
information was also sought on Centrally sponsored schemes like SGRY, IAY, etc.
The officials are quite alert and their performance has considerably improved.
The State has enacted RTI Act 2002, but, eventually it was repealed on October 11,
2005 because of the Central Act on RTI. The study found that the awareness about
the provisions of the Act among the officials, elected representatives and common
people was high and majority of them have gained knowledge about RTI through the
newspapers. Also, training programmes were conducted by various Institutes. People
are coming forward to seek information from the government and panchayat institutions.
However, some of the respondents mentioned that the information provided to them
was neither adequate and was used by the clientele to ensure that the local problems
and issues were made known to everyone, to check corruption at local level, to gain
insights and to spread information and also to expose delay tactics adopted by various
officers to provide information to the public. Some of the respondents also suggested
how to make this Act effective. It was also mentioned that some 10 years back it
was very difficult to obtain any information and this Act made things so handy for
the flow of information. Majority of the respondents perceive a change in the functioning
of the government offices and the panchayats at various levels. It was also mentioned
that the mindset of the officials has gradually changed and they are more responsible
now than earlier. Moreover, the ability of officials and the quality of work in
offices has improved. Nevertheless, the workload in the offices has increased. It
was a mixed reaction from elected representatives with regard to the Act. Some of
them welcomed this Act and some considered it as a big nuisance.
The State has introduced Right to Information Act in 2002 and subsequently, with
the enactment of Central Act, the State Act has been repealed. The awareness among
all stakeholders regarding the Right to Information Act was inadequate. It requires
special effort to enhance it. The print and electronic media are potential players
to build awareness. Simultaneously, the officials are to be trained regarding the
provisions of the Act for which a systematic training programme has to be launched.
It was observed from the sample district that the type of information people are
seeking is more about the developmental programmes. It was also observed that the
offices have displayed relevant information about the Act on notice boards. Overall
the Act has to take its roots in the State and it is not being utilised by the people
due to lack of awareness. Although the gram sabhas are being convened but the provisions
of the Act have not been discussed. The forum of gram sabha could be utilised for
dissemination of information regarding the Act. Some applicants also mentioned that
the format of application is not proper and it requires some changes.
In some areas, all the stakeholders were aware about the State and Central Act.
Majority of them came to know about the Act through newspaper, radio and TV and
some of them came to know through Panchayat functionaries. The Government has also
conducted some training programmes for officials on RTI. The
types of information sought by people were due to personal grievance or to help
some needy person or development of the village in general. The respondents also
mentioned that seeking information has empowered them to help in the process of
village development. The government agency or the panchayat provided
information to the seekers within the stipulated period and there was no such delay
in information giving. While asking the respondents whether the RTI will bring some
changes in the functioning of public offices, majority of them felt that it has
resulted in better functioning of the public offices which has helped the system
to be more transparent and accountable. The respondents also felt that the officers
dealing with this subject should be sincere and committed and also there is a need
for a change in the mind set. The respondents expressed confidence that the Act
will help to reduce the malpractices in the system. The government officials responsible
for providing information were quite cautious while replying to the seekers of information
otherwise a fine will be imposed on them. In the sample area, the panchayat offices
have displayed relevant information relating to the Act.
The Right to Information Act 2005, is a progressive piece of legislation. It is
a major step towards making system more transparent and accountable. It is more
applicable at the lower level of governance unit. The experience has been encouraging,
nevertheless, it requires proper governmental support and willingness to accept
it. Eventually, a situation will come where one may find true democracy in the country.
3. Establishing Transparent, Accountable and Responsive
Governance through Participation of Non-Party Political Organisations in Electoral
K. Jayalakshmi and E. Venkatesu
India being the largest democracy ensured to fulfill the constitutional obligation
of conducting free and fair elections by enacting the Representation of People’s
Act in 1951. Successive elections and supporting institutions viz., Election Commission
paved way for electoral reforms. Every election across levels proved to be an event
engrossed in ‘money and muscle power’ and leading to ‘Criminalisation of Politics’.
Both citizens and organisations joined the crusade to cleanse the politics at the
micro-level, due to its sheer size and volume which is manageable. The Gram Panchayat
elections is perceived as a unit wherein participation of non-party political organisations
* To understand specific characteristics of non-party political organisations and
analyse the approach to reclaiming participative, accountable and transparent governance
* To understand the factors, responsible to engage in electoral politics, role-played
by different actors in the decision making process;
* To compare the electoral process and governance between the gram panchayats, where
the non-party political organisations were active and the gram panchayat, where
nonparty political organisations did not exist.
The primary data were collected through following methods:
* A structured Questionnaire was administered to 4-5 respondents in every ward of
the Gram Panchayat to understand the perceptions of the people on activities, electoral
politics and functioning of MKSS and non MKSS Sarpanches. The composition of the
respondents includes women, men, SC, ST, OBCs and OCs. Focus group discussions were
organised with citizens, and public representatives; and the key informant interviews
were held with the representatives of the GOs, NGOs and elected representatives.
The secondary data were collected from the following sources- published articles
in books, journals and newspapers, paper clippings, memoranda, booklets, pamphlets
etc. CDs and cassettes on awareness building, public hearings, social audit, Gram
Sabha etc. are used for the analysis purpose; Secondary data regarding the profile
of the village were taken from the Gram Panchayat.
With the help of both primary and secondary data, historical description, development
of the case studies, initiations of the election watch, analysis of the public perceptions,
drawing conclusions and recommendations were made.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The focus of enquiry related to electoral reforms, clean administration and whether
MKSS can contest in Assembly elections for this people gave candid remarks like
they stated that MKSS is considered as a non-party political organisation and its
presence is very essential in light of regional backwardness. It has taken up several
activities enhancing the awareness levels and also it runs a public distribution
shop to take care of all essential items in the villages. The organisation has always
taken positions of responsibility and addressing and intervening to promote pro-poor
policies and create political alternatives to the people. The people also expressed
that over the years the organisation does have sufficient number of karya kartas
to handle the growing complexities in the village. A gap is slowly emerging between
the villagers and the organisation as the existing staff is trying to check the
entry of new members in the organisation. The organisation has not addressed the
core issues of drinking water, education, health and migration etc.
MKSS, as an organisation is essential to act as a check on the existing irregularities,
which takes place in various institutions and places. In the entire district there
is an element of fear among all the elected functionaries and officials at all the
levels that the organisation would intervene and expose them.
It was universally acknowledged by many that the organisation acts as a pressure
group in the districts and also in the State. People are convinced that the organisation
often tries to resolve such chronic issues which need immediate attention by both
the policy makers and practitioners. The villagers felt that the organisation need
to grow from strength to strength and villagers are often with them on all developmental
and social issues.
The principal task of political reforms is to address the democratic deficit and
some of its root causes. Specifically, the challenge is to strengthen devices to
facilitate mobilisation and in the formation of political agendas, formulation of
governmental policies and their effective execution. In the context of the retreat
of the State, there is a need to bring back the primacy of politics and restore
its capacity to act as the principal vehicle of social change. The litmkus test
for any proposal of ‘radical’ political reforms is its ability to deepen the ongoing
process of democratisation for the social groups and communities that have historically
been denied access to political power.
4. Self-Help Groups of Disabled : A Case Study of Velugu
in Andhra Pradesh
K.P. Kumaran and E.C. Jaya Kumar
The study examines various coping mechanisms to address the problems faced by the
disabled through SHG exclusively formed under the Velugu project.
* To examine the effectiveness of SHGs in sensitising the plight and the various
problems faced by the disabled and in overcoming them;
* To examine the measures taken to protect their legitimate rights and privileges
extended to them; and
* To study the efforts made to initiate livelihood programme through savings and
linkage with financial institutions.
Study Area and Methodology
The study examined SHGs of the disabled formed under the State sponsored rural poverty
elimination programme popularly known as Velugu. The study was conducted in two
districts viz. Ranga Reddy relatively developed and Nalgonda underdeveloped. Both
the districts were purposively selected taking into account the availability of
SHGs of the PWD. The former district is Nalgonda which stands second among the districts
in the State in terms of number of disabled people. From each district two mandals
were selected using the above criteria. They are Gatkeshar and Moinabad in Ranga
Reddy and Chintapally and Narayanpur in Nalgonda.
From each district 25 groups were selected randomly which are involved in income
generation activities. Thus, from the two districts, altogether 50 groups were studied
in detail. Further, from the selected groups two members were randomly selected
for detailed study. The 100 selected respondents were interviewed with the help
of an interview schedule. The respondents selected for the study were socially and
economically backward. Further, the respondents in Nalgonda are relatively poor–both
socially and economically compared to their counterparts in Ranga Reddy.
The selected respondents suffer from different types of disabilities which include
those who are mentally retarded, suffering from hearing and visual impairments and
loco motor disability. The respondents studied were either suffering from single
disability or multiple disabilities. In both the study areas most of them suffer
from loco motor disabilities. The respondents suffering from multiple disabilities
were more in Ranga Reddy. The problems faced by the disabled examined include social
exclusion, discrimination, and lack of awareness about their rights and privileges.
In Nalgonda, more than three-fourth of them suffer from loco motor disabilities
and the rest suffer from impairments of vision and hearing and in Ranga Reddy, 70
per cent suffer from loco motor disability and others suffer from mental, hearing
and vision impairments. Information shows that the most common cause for disability
is polio, due to this half of them in Ranga Reddy and 58 per cent respondents in
Nalgonda suffer from disability followed by accident; as a result of this 14 per
cent each in both the districts are affected. Although fluorosis is considered as
a major reason for disability in Nalgonda, only 8 cent suffer from this, while the
same proportion in Ranga Reddy is 6 per cent. In both the study areas, most of the
cases of disability have been diagnosed at an early age, i.e., before 5 years.
Two methods in checking the spread of disability were examined (i) administering
immunisation and (ii) pulse polio drops. Although the study area in Ranga Reddy
is very near to Hyderabad city, nearly one fourth of the children in Ranga Reddy
were not immunised while in Nalgonda only 2 per cent of the children were deprived
of this facility. Similarly, those children below 5 years covered under pulse polio
were better in Nalgonda and only 2 per cent of the children were left out, while
in the latter 12 per cent of the children were not administered.
LEVEL OF AWARENESS BEFORE AND AFTER JOINING SHG
Level of awareness of the respondents about their rights and privileges before and
after joining the SHG showed wide variation. The areas examined included awareness
about Railway/ Bus passes; reservation in education institutions, poverty alleviation
programme, jobs in government and semi–government institutions, eligible for pension,
marriage benefits etc. Before joining the group, some of the respondents in both
the study areas were aware about the concessions made available to them in local
transport like buses and train. Similarly, information about pension schemes for
the disabled was also known to only a few. The field functionaries under the Velugu
convened several meetings and explained to them about the Disability Act 1995 and
the facilities extended to them. Several camps were organised with a view to disseminate
this information so as to enable them to avail these benefits. After joining the
group, the respondents in both the study areas showed remarkable improvement in
awareness about their rights and privileges mentioned above.
Data showed that discrimination towards the disabled began within the family. Further
they had to face the ordeal in the neighbourhood, community and even in the place
of work. Disabled were considered as unproductive and not treated on par with other
normal persons. Some of them were isolated from the society and were not allowed
to come out of the house. After joining the group changes were visible in the attitude
of family and community towards the disabled. The respondents in both the study
areas felt that they were still subjected to discrimination.
SHGS OF THE DISABLED
The SHGs of the disabled were formed through the process of social mobilisation.
It is the community development worker under the Velugu basically responsible for
mobilising the disabled and forming SHGs among them. SHGs were formed mostly at
the village level. Generally, both male and female in the age group of 5 to 50 years
suffering from any type of disability were allowed to join a group. The composition
of the group showed that all the members were disabled. Most of them in the study
area suffer from loco motor disabilities. After joining the group, the President,
Secretary and Treasurer were elected or selected among themselves only. The office
bearers maintain the records with the help of educated family members.
The entire group conducts two meetings in a month. In most of the groups the timing
of the meeting is fixed. The first meeting is generally held for collecting the
monthly savings and the other for repayment. Except for the totally crippled and
mentally retarded, others attended the meeting regularly.
In the study areas, the motivation to join the SHG was provided by the functionaries
of Velugu. Most of the respondents in both the study areas joined the group with
the intention to establish friendship with differentially abled people.
The amount saved by the group members varied from Rs.10 to 60 and the monthly savings
made by all members were uniform. The total amount saved by these groups varied.
In Ranga Reddy the maximum saving in a group is up to Rs. 20,000 and the minimum
is around Rs. 800. While in Nalgonda, the maximum and minimum amounts saved by the
groups were Rs. 94,000 and Rs. 300, respectively.
FLOW OF CREDIT TO THE SHG
Under the Velugu, loan is given to the SHGs of the disabled based on the micro-plan
prepared by them on a yearly basis. Each SHG prepares its own micro plan taking
into consideration the credit requirements of its members both for consumption and
production purposes. Once the needs are identified it is prioritised. While sanctioning
the loan, performance of the SHG will be examined. The loan is disbursed to the
groups based on the micro plan. Once the loan is given to the groups further allocation
is made to its members with a repayment schedule. The members has to undertake a
personal bond to ensure safe repayment. Members themselves will decide the interest
for the loan. If the member is poor or suffering from serious health problems the
interest will be waived off.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AT GROUP LEVELS
In the entire 25 groups studied in Ranga Reddy the total number of members stood
at 293 groups accounting to 195, indicating an average number of 8 members in each
group. In Ranga Reddy, out of the total 293 members, 165 of them (56 per cent) were
involved in income generation activities. While in Nalgonda out of 195 members 163
of them undertook income generation activities. A total amount of Rs. 7,18,483 was
disbursed among the 258 entrepreneurs for undertaking income generation activities.
Of this, revolving fund constituted the major source of loan (39 per cent), which
is disbursed to 47 per cent of the respondents. The next highest source was CIF
(34 per cent) disbursed among 23 per cent of the respondents. Although saving constituted
only 9 per cent of the fund, with this nearly one fourth (24 per cent) of them undertook
income-generating activities. While in the case of Nalgonda all the 176 entrepreneurs
received a total amount of Rs. 1,35,045 indicating an average amount of rupees 7017
per head. Here the only source through which the entrepreneur received loan was
from CIF. In both the study areas, consumption of loan from saving was issued to
only a few selected members.
OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY AMONG THE RESPONDENTS
To understand about the occupational mobility achieved by the respondents an attempt
was made to compare the occupational status before and after joining the SHG. The
data showed that before joining SHG, 32 per cent of the respondents in Ranga Reddy
and 68 per cent in Nalgonda were unemployed. Among the unemployed housewives and
students were also included.
In Ranga Reddy among those who pursued employment 44 per cent pursued small business,
12 per cent worked as coolie and the rest 2 per cent worked as tailor. While in
Nalgonda, among those who pursued some vocation, 20 per cent worked as labourers,
4 per cent engaged in tailoring and the rest were engaged in poultry and tuition.
By joining SHG all of them became entrepreneurs and got an opportunity to set up
micro enterprises of their own choice. In Ranga Reddy the most common activity was
petty shop set up by 48 per cent of the respondents, 16 per cent dairy, 10 per cent
weaving/handicrafts and sheep rearing 6 per cent each. The other activities included
tailoring, mechanic etc. In Nalgonda , the most important activity is dairy pursued
by 40 per cent of the respondents followed by petty shops (26 per cent), tailoring
12 per cent, weaving/handicrafts 8 per cent, sheep rearing 6 per cent, cycle/scooter
mechanic/STD booth, 4 per cent each.
A comparison of micro enterprises set up by the respondents before and after joining
SHG showed most of the respondents in Nalgonda benefitted by joining the group.
By becoming a member they could undertake activities with economic support and even
in Ranga Reddy nearly three-fourth of them undertook certain economic activity.
COST OF THE PROJECT SETUP BY THE RESPONDENTS
The cost of the project set up by the respondents varied from Rs. 2000 to Rs. 10,000.
In Ranga Reddy those who invested an amount of Rs. 7500-10,000 accounted for 26
per cent of them while those who invested Rs. 2500-5000 accounted for 22 per cent
of the respondents. The respondents who spent Rs. 5000-7500 constituted 4 per cent
and the rest spent below Rs. 2500. In Nalgonda, more than half of them (52 per cent)
spent Rs. 2500-5000. The rest 48 per cent spent Rs. 7500-10,000.
SOURCE OF FUND
In Ranga Reddy, the source of fund received for economic activities include credit
from the group, bank, CIF, revolving fund, ‘own source’ and ‘other sources’. Those
who depended on revolving fund for loan constituted 28 per cent of the respondents.
Another 24 per cent depended on CIF. Others who depended on group credit constituted
(16 per cent), own source (14 per cent), Bank (10 per cent) and others (8 per cent).
While in Nalgonda all of them undertook economic activities with the help of CIF
loan. In both the study areas only few of them were given loan from the group saving
for meeting consumption needs.
REPAYMENT OF LOAN
Details about repayment schedule along with instalments amount and period will be
provided at the time of disbursing the loan. In both the study areas the repayment
rate is very good and above 90 per cent. No willful defaulter was reported among
the respondents. Nevertheless, in Nalgonda some cases were reported where the repayment
was delayed due to genuine reasons.
PROFIT FROM MICRO ENTERPRISES
In Ranga Reddy except for 8 per cent of the respondents all of them were getting
certain profit, and it varied from Rs. 250 to 2000. Most of the respondents income
ranges between Rs. 500–1000. In Nalgonda, all the entrepreneurs covered under the
study were receiving certain income. More than half of them earned an income of
Rs. 500–1000. Very few of them earned income above Rs. 2000. A comparison showed
that although there is no significant difference in terms of income earned between
the study area, the income earned by the respondents in Ranga Reddy is slightly
The study examined some of the problems faced by the people with disability and
how they tried to address these problems with the help of SHGs. The problems of
the disabled examined in this study include social exclusion, discrimination, and
lack of awareness about their rights, privileges and livelihood support programme.
The field data showed that before joining the group, some of them who were suffering
from severe disability even confined to their house. This is to avoid any kind of
embarrassment to the family members or for the visitors from outside as citing them
during certain auspicious occasion is considered as bad omen. They were considered
as less productive and lack capabilities to lead a normal life. Such an attitude
led to the over protection of the disabled leading to their isolation and seclusion.
They were also not given an opportunity to bring out the potentialities hidden in
them through education and other means for the benefit of self, family and society.
But after formation of group there seems to be a change in the attitude and the
disabled are getting an opportunity to move out of their house by participating
in various activities of the group.
The study showed that the disabled has to face discrimination not only in the family
but are also subject to this in the neighborhood community and even in the place
of work. The study also showed that the extent of discrimination faced by a person
with disability is directly related to the extent of disability that one suffers
from. Persons with mental retardation and those who are physically crippled suffer
from more discrimination.
Social exclusion and discrimination coupled with lack of education and exposure
to outside world made them ignorant of their rights and privileges made available
to them by the Government. The data showed that before joining the group their knowledge
about their rights and privileges in different spheres was limited. But after joining
the group their knowledge widened and used the benefits and facilities made available
The respondents have developed the habit of saving after joining the SHG. Some of
them have even started saving in other schemes as well. All the respondents could
take up income generation activities with the help of loan made available to them
through SHGs under various sources.
The economic activities undertaken by the disabled showed that they are also capable
of taking up any activities that the normal person generally does. By looking at
the type of economic activities undertaken by the disabled it may be inferred that
although they are physically disabled they do not seem to feel alienated because
of their disabilities. They feel that although they are physically disabled, socio-economically
they are abled as any other normal person to earn and assist their families in terms
of monetary support.
Through formation of the group for disabled, the members have experienced
a spirit of oneness and a feeling of togetherness has set in. The forum of SHG also
made them feel self-confident and assertive which was absent before joining the
group. A sense of feeling that “disability is not inability” seems to have internalised
among the members of the group.
5. Economic Upliftment of Minorities through Micro Credit
Finance : An Evaluation
In Indian scenario any community – religious or linguistic - which is numerically
less than 50 per cent of the population of the State, is entitled to the fundamental
rights guaranteed by Article 30. Article 30 guarantees the right of minorities to
establish and administer educational institutions of its choice must be a minority
of persons residing in India.
After Independence, the Government of India has launched a number of poverty alleviation
programmes. Multi-nationalisation of Banks was also a step in this direction. Infact,
the Nationalised Banks were focused as major source of credit for agriculture, traditional
trades, and artisan activities. Dr. Gopal Singr’s report revealed that minorities
have not been able to obtain their share of credit from Nationalised Banks as per
their requirement. This situation led to the concept of having an additional financing
agency for minorities in the form of National Minorities Development and Finance
Corporation (NMDFC). NMDFC was incorporated under aegis of Ministry of Social Justice
and Empowerment, Government of India on September 30, 1994 under the Sections 25
of the Company Act 1956, with the objective to promote economic development of the
poor section of minorities. The micro finance scheme has been initiated in 1998
through the Non Government Organisations. NMDFC implements Micro Finance Scheme
through State Canalising Agencies (SCAs) nominated by the State Governments and
others, through the Non Government Organisations.
NMDFC charges 1 per cent interest from its State channel agencies and from NGOs
at different interest rates from SEWA 4.5 per cent, SUWA 1.0 per cent and SABALA
8.0 per cent and 1.0 per cent first and second installment per annum. SCA in Uttar
Pradesh is further lending to the beneficiaries on 4.5 per cent interest per annum
whereas SCA in Karnataka charge the beneficiaries at 7.0 per cent interest rate
per annum. WBMDFC finances its funds through NGOs such as SWANIRVAR, ABCRDM and
BCP. These NGOs take funds form WBMDFC at the rate of 4.5 per cent and the same
funds are given to the beneficiaries annually between 10.0 per cent and 15 per cent
* To study the schemes and programmes of the institutions organisations, financing
micro credit to the minorities;
* To study the impact of micro credit in terms of economic development of the beneficiaries;
* To make suitable recommendations to improve the system of micro credit.
Study Area and Methodology
This study has been carried out in Barabanki and Lucknow districts of Uttar Pradesh,
24 Paragnas (North and South) districts of West Bengal and Bijapur district in Karnataka.
A sizeable number of population belonging to the minorities live in all these districts.
This study covers 600 beneficiaries from all the three States comprising of 200
beneficiaries from each State. This study covers 360 beneficiaries of State Channel
Agencies (SCAs), 120 beneficiaries of NMDFC and 120 beneficiaries of District Rural
Development Agencies. This study covers 93.3 per cent (560) beneficiaries of Muslim
Community and 6.7 per cent (40) beneficiaries of Christian Community, which was
determined, based on their coverage. In all the areas studied, Muslim population
is higher. A sample of 420 beneficiaries were chosen from rural areas whereas 180
beneficiaries were chosen from urban areas.
This study finds that beneficiaries have improved their income due to micro finance.
The scheme has improved the socio economic conditions of the beneficiaries but they
were keen to get financial assistance repeatedly for constant development of their
families. Most of the beneficiaries emphasised that District Rural Development Agency
(DRDA) has provided subsidy whereas Corporation has not provided them subsidies.
They brought it to notice of Corporation that officials have not made it clear on
this issue. As a result, the recovery position is poor in Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka.
In West Bengal, recovery is high because of the NGOs involvement. NGOs charge additional
interest from the beneficiaries, if they are not able to pay installments on time.
District Rural Development Agency in West Bengal has also implemented the micro
finance through the NGOs.
In West Bengal, the amount of micro finance is smaller than in Uttar Pradesh and
Karnataka. Moreover, the range of amount for the same activity is different in West
Bengal. District Rural Development Agency in West Bengal has also financed small
amount of assistance to the beneficiaries.
The cycle rickshaw pullers (whom the micro credit provided), have now become the
owners of cycle rickshaws. Earlier, each one of them, used to hire cycle rickshaw
at Rs.20 per day. Now this amount is being saved. Some of the beneficiaries mentioned
that the quality of cycle rickshaws are poor and they use more money for its repair.
Beneficiaries brought to notice that micro-finance has helped them to reduce unemployment
and poverty. A little portion of income (generated from the micro finance) has helped
to improve the quality of life. This study finds that members who obtained finance
through SHGs, understand the responsibility to repay loan in time. This enthusiasm
was not found among those beneficiaries whom micro finance has been given with Self-employed
Women’s Association (SEWA) in Uttar Pradesh and SABALA (An Organisation for Women
Empowerment) in Karnataka, are involved in the process of marketing their products.
This study finds that a majority of the beneficiaries are no aware about the link
between State Channel Agency and National Minorities Development Finance Corporation,
which is located in Delhi. Most of the beneficiaries feel that they have received
micro finance from the concerned State Channel Agency or concerned Non-Governmental
All the three State Channel Agencies are shortage of staff. Most of the employees
are paid low salary, thus creating hurdles for new coverage, recovery and monitoring
of the scheme, etc. Those who are working on consolidated salary, are not sure whether
Corporation will take care of their job security. This problem is not found in government
machinery especially in District Rural Development Agency.
* All minority groups should be covered equally under the scheme based on their
populations. In State Channel Agency, the staff should be appointed according to
the ratio of the minorities. Promote good relationship between one or the other
community of minority. Moreover, State Channel Agencies need sufficient staff to
handle different schemes. This will help in the recovery of the loan.
* The amount under micro finance scheme should be enhanced. Particularly in the
case of West Bengal a major chunk of beneficiaries got micro finance less than Rs.5000.
The facility of micro finance should be continued based on the recovery of earlier
dues, so that the socio-economic conditions of the minorities could be enhanced.
* The interest rate of the micro finance should be implemented uniformly by all
the channel agencies. In this direction, NMDFC should come forward to instruct channel
agencies to avoid exploitation of the beneficiaries particularly in the hands of
* This scheme should be monitored continuously for betterment of the beneficiaries.
This scheme can be made more useful, if the expectation of applicants recorded well
in advance through survey. The recovery should be collected based on balance amount
rather than equal monthly instalments. The provision of recovery should be made
easy and it should be collected at local level.
* This scheme does not help to reduce the problem of unemployment. Under micro finance
scheme more number of applicants should be covered. Beneficiaries should be given
credit repeatedly to improve their socio-economic conditions.
* The criteria for selection of the beneficiaries should be decided based on population
and area-wise. In 24 paraganas (North & South), particularly bordering villages
of Bangladesh, 99.0 per cent population belongs to Muslim community. Therefore,
definition of minorities should be determined based on area-wise population.
* The beneficiaries should be made aware about the institutional arrangements and
intention of micro finance. The finance should be given as usual on the traditional
occupation, to reduce the burden of training and marketing process.
6. Empowerment of Rural Youth : A Study of Youth Development
C.S. Singhal and S. Vijaya Kumar
In order to facilitate the process of youth empowerment, Youth Development Centres
(YDCs) have been established on the basis of picking the best from among a cluster
of youth clubs. These YDCs serve as training centres for surrounding youth clubs.
The NYKs empower youth by their involvement in activities like literacy, family
welfare, environment conservation, national integration, women’s empowerment, provide
access to benefits under various government schemes and develop values and skills
among the rural youth so that they become responsible and productive citizens.
In addition to YDCs, the study also assessed the Yuvak Mangal Dal in Uttar Pradesh
promoted by department of Youth Welfare and Pradeshik Vikash Dal.
* To study the organisational pattern of YDCs and assess its suitability in relation
to its functions.
* To study the performance of YDCs in terms of empowerment of Youth (promoting awareness,
vocational skills, economic participation in government programmes through interaction
and coordination with various development and sectoral departments.
* To study the perception and attitude of youth and other major stakeholders towards
YDCs and their functioning.
Study Area and Methodology
The study was undertaken in three States namely Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar
Pradesh. Altogether 20 YDCs/YCs were studied which are spread over five districts
namely Lucknow and Barabanki in Uttar Pradesh, Jabalpur and Mandla in Madhya Pradesh
and Tiruvananthapuram in Kerala.
Altogether 70 office bearers and members of YDCs/YCs were interviewed from each
State. So a total of 210 office bearers and members of YDCs/YCs were contacted and
interviewed personally in this study.
“Key Resource Persons” including District Youth Coordinator on NYKs, State and District
Officials of Youth Welfare Department of States, representatives of NGOs and few
villagers, who are well versed with the activities of YDCs/YCs were also contacted
and interviewed through structured interview schedule.
Empowerment of Rural Youth : The empowerment were assessed in terms of awareness,
access to opportunity structure, interaction of youth with officials, social mobility
of youth, social capital, enhancement of knowledge, skill development, economic
aspects, political influence, gender equality, internal and external locus of control
and self efficacy. The respondents were asked to rate on five point scale on all
these factors before and after joining the youth development centres / youth clubs
(YDCs/YCs). Based on the aggregate score on each of these empowerment dimension
mean score were calculated.
The overall score on each of these dimensions shows that before joining the YDCs/YCs
the level of empowerment were medium in most of the cases and were low in few cases.
However, after joining the YDCs/YCs, the mean score on each of these empowerment
dimensions were enhanced to better level between 3.5 to 5.
It shows that the impact of the various activities of YDCs on the youth empowerment
dimensions were positive. Hence, such youth organisations need to be strengthened
for empowerment of rural youth.
The variables like the position of members i.e., executives and ordinary members,
sex of the members, caste, level of education, age and land holdings did not showed
any impact on the empowerment of rural youth.
Aspiration of Rural Youth : The summarised responses shows that youth aspire to
become good citizen with socio-cultural, economic and personal values. They wanted
to be ‘self reliant’ and economically independent. The other responses were, YDCs
should help in getting employment, increase income, serve community social peace
and equality of opportunity and no exploration.
The respondents were of the view that YDCs/YCs will give moral support and fulfill
the aspiration to large extent if provided guidance.
Strength/Weakness : The unity among members, coordination and people’s participation
and organisation of vocational training for youth are main strength. Non availability
of funds and lack of building, playground and lack of employment generation are
The YDCs/YCs are an effective organisation to empower rural youth. Hence, efforts
should be made to strengthen these youth organisations. The following recommendations
could enhance the effectiveness of these organisations. The following recommendations
could enhance the effectiveness of these organisations.
Training District Youth Coordinators (DYCs) : The DYCs should be well versed with
the latest techniques of working with individual and groups, latest issues of youth
development and how to conduct effectively various activities of NYKs. So periodical
training/refresher courses for officials of NYKs should be organised by expert organisation
Clarity of Vision, Mission and Objectives of the NYKs : There was lack of clarity
among officials and other stakeholders about the vision, mission and objectives
of the NYKs in general and youth clubs in particular. This should be cause of concern
to improve the functioning of youth organisation. Hence, appropriate HRD intervention
is required to orient officials of NYKs in this regard.
Youth Club’s Executive : The selection of youth club’s executives needed to be the
representatives of the village youths. While formulating ‘youth clubs’ proper representation
to vulnerable section of society SC/STs, women and poor should be given. Moreover,
the age restriction of 35 years should also be followed to give benefits of development
programmes to youth.
Capacity Building of Youth Clubs : At present there is no provision of any training
for office bearers or the members of youth clubs in organisation of various activities
and running the club effectively, awareness about the various development programmes
etc. There should be provision to orient office bearer of youth clubs in smooth
running of these clubs.
Monitoring : There is no monitoring of the activities of most of the youth clubs,
due to shortage of staff and meagre resources. At present computer facilities are
available only at the regional level. To reduce the workload and faster communication
all district level officials of NYKs should be linked with computer facilities on
Registration of Youth Clubs : The process of registration of Youth Clubs under NYKs
is quite cumbersome in Uttar Pradesh. The fees for registration is Rs. 1000. While
the youth club formed under the State Department of Youth Welfare and PDA is only
Rs.5. Hence to facilitate the registration of youth clubs formed by NYKs State government
should reduce the fees of registration at par with the clubs formed by the State
Revision of By-laws of Yuvak Mangal Dal : The by-laws of Yuvak Mangal Dal (YMDs)
needed amendments so that it can be treated on par with other non-governmental organisations
(NGOs) and Yuvak Mangal Dal could take up some development activities from various
funding agencies/government departments.
Building of Youth Clubs : To facilitate the activities of youth clubs funds should
be made available under various infrastructure development schemes under rural development
department like NREGP.
Library and Sports Material : There should be one time financial assistance to establish
library and sports material. Moreover there should be flexibility in providing sports
material to the youth clubs as per interest of youth.
Youth Welfare Committees : In Uttar Pradesh, “ State Youth Welfare Parishad” was
formed in 1991 but till date its nomination is not completed. So with the proper
representation of youth from districts the “State Youth Welfare Parishad” need to
be formed on priority basis for proper utilisation of the funds and activities of
youth in the State.
District Magistrate is President of ‘District Youth Welfare Committee’. The District
Chief Development Officer should be made President of this committee to facilitate
the link of the development programmes with the activities of Yuvak/Yuvati Mangal
Dal. Moreover there should be representation of Yuvak/Yuvati Mangal Dal from each
development blocks in these Committees.
Federation of Youth Clubs : Inspite of the fact that a large number of registered
youth clubs are existing, there was no Federation of these youth clubs found at
Block/District/State level. Hence, the NYKs should make efforts to form the Federation
at various levels to strengthen this movement. The State Government should also
make efforts to form Federation at various level with proper representation to the
Programme of NYKs : The number of regular programmes of NYKs are meagre in comparison
to the number of youth clubs in the district. Hence the number of regular programme
of NYKs need to be enhanced considerably to activate the youth clubs.
The funds for regular activities of NYKs is also quite meagre and needed enhancement
for smooth conduct of its various activities.
Linkage with Development Programmes : Although Ministry of Rural Development is
implementing its programme through NYKs at various places but it all depends on
the coordination of District Youth Coordinator with development departments. Hence
to coordinate the activities of rural development department and other departments
like H.R.D., Health and Family Welfare, Women and Child Development should specifically
mention in the guidelines for involvement of youth clubs and necessary office order
from concerned departments at Central/State level which need to be issued to get
at least active clubs involved directly.
Self-Employment Programme : Although NYKs has a scheme of self-employment for training
village youth in various vocations the number of such programmes is very less i.e.
(2-3) in one district. The number of such training programmes need to be increased.
Moreover, there is no mechanism to follow up such training due to lack of any mechanism
or linkage with any other organisation will yield low result. The monitoring of
training activities was found to be a weak component. Moreover, the vocational training
should be organised in local need based areas.
Marketing : There is no marketing facilities made available to these youth clubs.
Nor are they provided any orientation in this regard during the vocational training
which needs to be looked into for increasing the income from self-employment.
National Service Volunteer : In view of the duty assigned to NSVs the honorarium
of Rs.1,000 need to be enhanced to double with provision of some travel allowances.
Moreover, the duration of appointment of NSVs should be enhanced to atleast 2 years
with considerable experience and contribution.
Stadium in Uttar Pradesh : In 20 districts at block level stadia are constructed.
For their proper utilisation yoga and vocational training should be organised regularly
in these stadia.
Structure of Youth Welfare Department in U.P. : In most of the States, the Youth
Welfare Departments are with Sports Department but in Uttar Pradesh it is merged
with Pradeshik Vikash Dal, whose main work is to cooperate in maintenance of peace
and security in rural areas. So, in Uttar Pradesh youth department may be merged
with sports department and Pradeshik Vikash Dal may be merged with home guard of
7. GIS Based Development Atlas for Ranga Reddy District,
V. Madhava Rao, R.R. Hermon and P. Kesav Rao
The imbalance in regional development with regional problems concerns development
planners and policy makers and people at large. The State and Central Government
has earmarked substantial budgetary support for Panchayati Raj Institutions to take
up various development activities in areas requiring treatment. The Central funds
provided for projects and programmes for Zilla Panchayat, Mandal/Intermediary Panchayat
and Gram Panchayats and funds mobilised for certain activities and the revenues
generated by the Mandal and Gram Panchayats to augment resources and make productive
use of them for greater economic benefits of the people and area needs analysis
based on development level.
Currently there is no Development Atlas in the country, though many Atlases similar
to Development Atlases are prepared on one or more themes for the user organisations.
The Medak District Atlas is a Resource Development Atlas which identifies the current
resource position and prospects for optimising resource use for developing the Medak
The National Wasteland and Watershed Atlases depict the wastelands based on a standard
classification of soil and land characteristics and watershed delineation based
on drainage, slope and aspect. NRSA and Forest Research Institute of India prepared
forest maps with variations, which are being attempted to be resolved for standardisation.
The Development Atlas would be an attempt to bridge the gap between regional imbalances
by depicting spatial spread of growth and infrastructure and spatial analysis of
resources which give a comparative advantage in decisions relating to development
planning for analysis for objective and meaningful derivations for development assessment
and identifying hot spots requiring development thrust.
The following are the broad objectives of the GIS based Development Atlas for Ranga
* To formulate a database at Mandal level for Ranga Reddy District from Census,
Agricultural Census, NSSO, State Government and other data sources.
* To undertake a detailed analysis at mandal level in selected sectors like agriculture,
health, education and irrigation etc.
* To identify hot spots requiring for development thrust and
* To prepare a GIS based Development Atlas for Ranga Reddy District.
Study Area and Methodology
The study area covered all mandals of Ranga Reddy in Andhra Pradesh State. Relational
database pertaining to Ranga Reddy district on agriculture, health, education and
irrigation sectors are attempted for generation of development atlas for the district.
The core database is collected from published sources namely from Resource Organisations
like NSSO, NRSA, Census, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Academic Institutes,
Research Organisations, National and International Sources, Panchayat Raj Offices,
Rural Development Departments, etc. and the spatial database from the village and
mandal map layers, satellite imageries and other database pertaining to thematic
The land use particulars of the district reflect not only the extent of development
of agriculture activities of the district but also represent the potential infiltration
of the areas.
While the basic data base with critical parameters relating to one aspect are appropriately
indexed and these factors are compared on a common scale for one district, which
includes agriculture, animal husbandry, health, education, and irrigation sector
and a detailed analysis for the same were attempted.
All available data from Government sources, satellite imageries, field data and
past are analysed for objective and meaningful derivations for development assessment
identifying hot spots requiring development thrust.
The basic data base with critical parameters relating to one aspect are appropriately
indexed and these factors are compared on a common scale for the entire district
at micro level, which includes agriculture, animal husbandry, health, education
and irrigation sectors.
A benchmark Atlas with all available development indicators up to district level
are attempted while a detailed analysis for one district was carried out for elected
sectors like Health, Education, Agriculture and Irrigation.
The spatial data will be integrated with attributed data and the comparison will
be made on indexing basis for meaningful inferences. Based on this analysis, hot
spots are identified, which require development thrust through infrastructure support
and through other policies and programmes.
Land Use / Land Cover
The satellite data related to both Kharif and Rabi seasons were used for mapping
the Land use/Land cover classes.
The various land use/land cover classes delineated in the study area are (i) Built
up, and (ii) Agricultural land, (iii) Forest, (iv) Waste land, (v) Water bodies,
and (vi) Others like quarrying, tank bed cultivation and grass land.
This is the area of human habitat developed due to nonagricultural use. The built-up
land of the study area comprises villages, towns, cities and industries. The study
area consists of 34 Mandals in Ranga Reddy district. The urban agglomeration of
Hyderabad district include residential areas, industrial areas and public utilities
like gardens, parks, race course, parade grounds, aerodrome, and zoo park etc. National
highway No. 9 which connects Hyderabad with Sholapur and National highway No. 7
which connects Hyderabad with Bangalore passes through the Eastern part of the study
area. Besides, a number of other major roads are also passing through the study
area. The total area covered under this category is found to be 451.789 sq.km.
The agricultural land use is a function of land productivity and land utilisation
practices over period of time. The agricultural land use classes identified in the
study area include crop land, fallow land and agricultural plantations.
A) CROP LAND
The crop land in the study area comprises of kharif irrigated, kharif unirrigated,
rabi unirrigated and double crop.
In this land-use class, the crops are irrigated by tapping ground water and also
using surface water from tanks and rivers. The major crops grown in the study area
are paddy, cotton, chillies, turmeric, groundnut, jowar, wheat and vegetables like
brinjal, ladies finger, onion etc. This land use/land cover category is observed
in the Eastern part of the study area near North of Tekalpalli, West of Doma, in
the Central part of the study area near West of Gundala and in the Western part
of the study are near West of Surangal, North and South of Ameerpet, East of Kaykur,
Shamirpet and South of Amberpet.
B) KHARIF UNIRRIGATED
This is the most predominant land use class occuring in the study area. The crops
pertaining to this land class are grown in relatively elevated regions under rainfed
conditions. The various crops in the study area grown under this class are cotton,
maize, red gram, black gram, green gram, jowar, etc.
C) DOUBLE CROP
The lands cultivated in both kharif and rabi seasons with different crops are categorised
as double crop lands. These lands are generally irrigated by tapping ground water
or surface water through tanks, streams and rivers. However, few areas falling under
double crop category are cultivated under rainfed conditions during Kharif season
and under irrigated conditions during rabi seasons.
It is an area of agricultural tree crops and grown by adopting certain agricultural
management techniques. These lands are generally observed in the topographically
high and cropping areas covered with lateritic soils in the study area. The plantations
in the study area are under both rainfed conditions and under irrigated conditions
It is an area within the notified forest boundary mostly covered by trees and other
vegetation types capable of producing timber and other forest produces. These lands
are generally occupying the topographically high regions. This land use / land cover
class of the study area includes deciduous forest, scrub forest and forest plantations.
It is described as a forest which predominantly comprises of deciduous species and
where the trees shed their leaves once in a year. The deciduous forest category
has been further subdivided not dense forest and open forest classes.
This occurs within the notified forest boundary and has a canopy cover of 40 per
cent and to hills and hill slopes. The dense forest category noticed in the study
area is of deciduous and found in the Western part of the study area near East of
Wothkapal. Northeast of Munugurti and in the Eastern part of the study area is near
South of Manchirevula.
It is the forest cover which occurs in the notified forest area where the canopy
cover is below 40 per cent. This is possibly due to natural process of degradation
and repeated cutting of trees, grazing and rock quarrying. The open forests are
observed in the Western part of the study area near East of Kanavalli, Mothku, West
of Adkicherla, Rasnam, Dharur, Utpalli. Vikarabad, South of Rasnam and Rasnam and
Northeast of Mujahedpur etc, in the Central part of the study area near East of
Gollapalli, North of Khanduada and in the Eastern part of the study are near North
of Hayatnagar etc.
It is described as a forest cover within the notified forest area where the vegetation
density is less than 20 per cent of the canopy cover and it is the result of both
biotic and a biotic influences.
Forest plantation It is described as an area of trees of species of forestry importance
and raised in notified forest lands. The forest plantation species are observed
in the western part of the study area near northeast of Somangurti; in the Central
part of the study area near West of Komapalle, East of Kollapadkal Cheruvu, Saroornagar,
North of Kesara, Mialsaram etc
i) Land with Scrub
It is land which has an undulating topography with thin soil cover and scattered
trees/scrubs. It is the most predominant waste land class occurs in the study area.
These lands are being used for grazing and are ideal sites for plantations.
ii) Land without Scrub
It is that land which has undulating topography within soil cover and devoid of
any scrubs. These lands are generally prone to sheet wash and soil erosion.
iii) Salt Effected Land
It is the area with saline soil and occurring generally in the topographically low
areas near tanks and streams. These lands are covered with thin veneer or salt deposits
due to capillary action.
Barren Rock/Stony Waste/Sheet Rock Area
These are rock exposures of granites and geneisses and hard lateritic capping material
often barren and devoid of soil cover and vegetation. These rocky areas occur as
scattered and exposures or loose fragments of boulders or sheet rocks of granite
genesses in the Eastern part of the study area. These areas generally occupy the
topographically high relief areas in the study area. These rocky areas are generally
used for mining for extracting construction material.
These are the areas of impounded water, aerial in extent often with a regulated
flow of water. These include rivers, reservoirs and streams in the study area.
In general, these tanks are rainfed and are interconnected by streams at few places.
The water resources of these tanks are mainly utilised for agricultural and drinking
Cropping System and Recommended Crops Ranga Reddy district area is intensively cultivated
area irrigated even though the large area is occupied by industries and habitational
purposes. Even in unfavourable conditions particularly on the foot slopes and higher
elevations, the deep wells are sunk and are cultivated for irrigated crops. Paddy
is taken in lowest elements of topography identified as valleys and alluvial plains
along with sugarcane and turmeric. Jowar, redgram, groundnut, maize, chillies, cotton
etc. are taken in Pedi plains, where irrigation facilities are not available. To
attain the improved cropping system, an integrated intensive and water conservation
measures are to be implemented.
Geologically, the district comprises of archaean crystalline rocks of granite gneisses,
basalts, bhima limestone's, laterites and river alluvium. Most of the area is occupied
by granite gneisses complex comprising of pink and grey granites, gigantic banded
gneisses. Bhimas comprising limestone's occur in the North Western part of the district.
Basalts overlying granite gneisses occupy the western part of Ranga Reddy district.
The laterites overlying basalts occur in the elevated regions of Deccan traps. Alluvium
in the area is limited in extent and found along stream courses. The soils in the
district are mainly lateritic, black cotton and red lomy soils.
The ground water in the area occurs under-confined, semi-confined and confined conditions.
Rainfall is the principal source of recharge and the discharge of ground water is
made by sinking dug-cum-bore wells and tapping the weathered and fractured zones
of various litho logical units.
The higher concentrations of fluoride are commonly observed in the water in Ranga
Reddy district, however within the limits of drinking water standards.
The quality of ground water also indicates moderate to high salinity hazard for
Based on the satellite data interpretation, the district has been categorised into
19 land use and land cover classes. Paddy, jowar, maize, chillies, sugarcane, vegetables
like ladies finger, onion etc. Turmeric and cotton are the main crops grown in the
The lands under double crop category are occupying the topographic low areas and
irrigated by tapping ground water or surface water through tanks. The land with
scrub is the most predominant waste land class occurring in the district.
The district has been categorised into seven slope classes in which slope class
1 and 2 cover major portion of the area. The moderate and steep slope categories
correspond to hilly terrain of residual hills and inselbergs of granite gneisses
and highly dissected plateau of basalt region.
* The major development of ground water in the district is to be planned by tapping
the potential zones of pediplain with moderate weathering of granite gneisses, moderately
thick lateritic and structural valleys of basalts by executing dugcum-bore wells
or bore wells.
* Massive efforts are needed for rain water harvesting structures such as percolation
tanks, check dams and farm ponds for improving the ground water recharging conditions
in the area.
* Desilting of the existing tanks is suggested to increase the storage capacity
and improve the percolation rates and causing good recharge to the ground water.
* There is a need to grow forest plantations in the areas occupied by scrub forest.
* Medical facilities are poor in Shahbad, Kulkacherla, Dharur and Bantaram mandals
in the district which need to be strengthened.
* Education facilities are poor in the predominantly rural areas of Saroornagar,
Uppal and Rajendranagar mandals in the district.
* Irrigation development has to be given highest priority in development programmes
since ground water is the only source, and may be potential for development.
* Development of livestock and its efficient use has to be given equal priority
along with irrigation development.
* The development of agro-engineering has recently led to the introduction and popularisation
of many labour saving agricultural implements. The advantage of these implements
should be brought to the notice of cultivators through demonstrations. Distribution
of improved seeds has to be given top priority. Necessary schemes may also be prepared
for the welfare of small and marginal farmers in the district.
* Private entrepreneurs should be encouraged with incentives to establish industries
in Shamirpet, Keesara and Ghatkesar mandals in this district, where adequate wastelands
* Infrastructure facilities mainly roads electrification, water supply, health and
education, banking and cooperative, marketing facilities etc. need to be improved
in the rural areas of the district substantially for improving the quality of lives
of the rural people and empower them to enhance their living standards and economic
* From development point of view the mandals Saroornagar, Rajendranagar, Shamshabad,
Shabad, Kukacherla, Vikarabad and Dharur need special attention for quick development.
* About 32 per cent areas under agriculture where there is slight to moderate soil
erosion it is recommended to raise vegetative barriers, contour bunding and check
* Moderate to severe soil erosion observed is nearly 2.3 per cent of the area, soil
erosion control measure including planting of soil binding species contour works
etc. should be undertaken.
* About 13 per cent of the district area using irrigation facility, irrigation water
management through sprinklers, drip irrigation methods need to be practiced.
* Marginal lands occupying about 27 per cent of the area has poor productivity and
severe soil erosion. In these areas, soil and water conservation measures like contour
bunding etc. should be taken up.
* Development of nutrient grasses for cattle and dairy development are necessary
in grassland areas along major rivulets, drainage basins, irrigation channels etc.
* Reclamation measures should be initiated in salt affected areas in the district.
Afforestation with suitable forest species, contour trenches in steep slope areas
and special efforts in barren rocky areas are recommended in the forest area.
* Barren rocky areas outside notified forest area are recommended for afforestation
with cordon walls or quarrying with environmental protection measures.
* Shelter belt/strip plantation along all the major roads in the district should
be taken up to reduce wind velocity, evaporation transpiration losses and soil moisture
8. GRAMSAT : Utility and Effectiveness
S.V. Rangacharyulu, P. Satish Chandra and Saroj Kumar Das
The Department of Space and Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India has
sponsored the GRAMSAT programme in Orissa. While the financial assistance is given
by Department of Space, and the Orissa Remote Sensing Agency (ORSAC) is designated
as a nodal agency to coordinate with various departments of Government of Orissa
for preparation of an annual calendar covering every department/agency that utilises
this facility. The GRAMSAT was introduced in the year 2000 to bring Government of
Orissa closer to the people. Now GRAMSAT network is available in all the 30 districts,
314 blocks and 1190 Gram Panchayat headquarters in 8 Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput
Usually the end-user will log onto GRAMSAT via Direct Reception Systems (DRS), which
provides two-way-audio and one-way-video facility supported by Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO). In Orissa, the GRAMSAT is being used under Interactive Training
Programme (ITP) mode for disseminating information and for building capacities of
the functionaries at the district, block and village levels. Its main aim is to
enable direct participation of the officials, elected representatives, stakeholders,
grassroots level functionaries and the target audience to interact directly to know
the fund allocations, changes if any, in the scheme implementing procedures and
revisions that occur from time to time. Through GRAMSAT, the Panelists at studio-end
would brief the target audience on different issues/topics concerning RD programmes
with a view to create awareness among its citizens/functionaries at the receiving-end.
Besides clarifying doubts/queries they are clarified directly by the Ministers,
experts, and department heads concerned and keeping them abreast with the latest
In the last few years, the Government of Orissa has made significant strides in
the Information Technology (IT) sector by specially switching over to ITP via GRAMSAT
for direct participation to address the issues of development administration at
the grassroots level.
Therefore, there is a need for detailed investigation to know the impact of the
GRAMSAT from its initial stage to the present stage. There is also a need to examine
how the Orissa Government is making use of this technique to meet the present and
future challenges of its people to bring transparency, accountability and good governance
in the State to enhance the delivery of public services.
* To study the processes involved in the implementation and management of GRAMSAT
* To elicit views of the facilitators, resource persons and other officials involved,
about implementation and also their perceptions of the benefit derived from GRAMSAT
both by functionaries and elected representatives; and
* To suggest appropriate measures for improving the effectiveness of GRAMSAT implementation.
Study Area and Methodology
The study focusses on the programme telecast using the ITP mode during 2005. The
selection of sample and the Centres (DRDAs/Blocks) were done in consultation with
authorities concerned involved in the implementation of GRAMSAT. Both KBK and non-KBK
districts of Orissa are considered as two different strata from which two districts
were randomly selected. Again from each district two blocks were selected. Two districts
and four blocks in non-KBK stratum and similarly two districts, four blocks in the
KBK stratum and similarly two districts, four blocks in the KBK stratum and one
coastal district with two blocks formed the total sample frame.
All relevant data related to both primary and secondary sources were collected.
The primary data were obtained through a structured questionnaire from ORSAC, production
centre viz., studio and Receiving Centres (RCs). The secondary data sources include
different reports, journals, log books, documents and manuscripts maintained at
Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered. Some statistical tools were
used to analyse the data such as crosstabs, frequency distributions, percentages,
averages and graphs. Various methods like group discussion; PRA, meetings and in-depth
interviews were followed to seek information from the concerned officials implementing
the GRAMSAT project. Fifty-three functionaries in KBK district (Balangir, Rayagada)
and fifty functionaries in non-KBK district (*Khurda, Dhenkanal and Puri) and nine
functionaries from State capital Bhubaneswar constituted the total sample of 112
comprising 76 officials and 34 non-officials.
Suggestions and Findings
* The Government of Orissa and the nodal agency (ORSAC) should identify places where
the GPs don’t have television (TV) penetration, but has electricity/power to establish
GRAMSAT. This will enable the people to atleast view the TV programmes and slowly
habituate to view the development documentary exclusively designed and prepared
for people’s participation. It is interesting to note that movies are being screened
on Sundays for entertaining the viewers.
* The GRAMSAT programme should be flexible, so that the utility can be best explored
not only by telecasting governmental schemes/programmes, but allow audience to watch
and enjoy Doordarshan programmes for which they are willing to use the TV sets.
* A cadre of youth be trained and equipped to facilitate GRAMSAT activities at blocks/GPs.
* The respondent’s opinion / likings on priority of schemes and issues be accessed,
so that the GRAMSAT will emerge as a live screen for a win-win situation.
* In almost every Gram Panchayat the food grains are stocked in the same premises,
where the TV set is located, as a result the room is fully occupied giving no chance
for the audience to witness the GRAMSAT programmes as envisaged. Moreover, in most
of the instances, the Secretary/EO is preoccupied with distribution and other routine
works and he/she unable to pay due attention to GRAMSAT activity.
* Those who operate this system and are making GRAMSAT more popular should be identified
and suitably rewarded by giving incentives.
* Another important factor that needs attention is a vigorous publicity campaign
for promoting the technology may be thought of by IEC or posters to make real dent
on the use of GRAMSAT.
* The continue of ITPs should be maintained and reinforced by the user departments
to keep in constant touch with concerned officers / functionaries at different levels.
* Access to technical service support at all receiving centres should be ensured
* Seating arrangement for 20-30 at blocks and GPs should be made mandatory which
is prevalent more at DRDAs.
* The functioning of GRAMSAT at GPs has to be geared-up which needs special attention
with reference to manpower, accommodation, electricity, phone and training. Lack
of responsibility and technical know-how on DRS reflects on poor utilisation of
* GRAMSAT and ITPs together have changed the working environment as noticed in PR
department. The officials and field functionaries at district and block level have
effectively used this facility. Much needs to be done to percolate this (development
broadcast) to Gram Panchayats, which has not made the desired impact. * The infrastructure
(Conference Halls) created for this purpose at DRDAs and blocks is commendable.
Besides, the recruitment of Computer Programmer and Programme Officer to facilitate
and manage the ITPs with technical background is an added advantage for the success
of GRAMSAT. Similar arrangements should also be made at GP level too.
* The impact of ITPs as well as the usefulness is appreciated by all concerned (Officials
and Non-officials) at both district and block levels. Since GRAMSAT is used like
a free communication vehicle directly communicating the messages from higher level
to the lowest unit which otherwise would have taken longer time and incurred lot
* The new technology has created a feeling of togetherness and close rapport among
the functionaries and panelists. Interestingly, the audiences at the receiving-end
are confident now to understand and take advantage of resource persons’ knowledge
located at far-end (studio).
* The ITP is perceived as innovative process by a large section of people is meant
to bring change in the environment and delivery mechanism. It should be a continuous
facilitating exercise allowing mutual learning between the trainer and the trainee.
Therefore, this mode of training has gained momentum not only in Orissa State, but
also in five other States where it is being implemented. Because of its high potential
to research it out larger audience and covering the un-reached KBK areas within
affordable cost and economically viable Satellite Based Training (SBT) should be
given top priority.
* The satellite based programme operating in six States viz., Karnataka, Rajasthan,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa and Orissa should be brought on a single platform
to address problems or issues concerning them in a concerted manner, atleast once
a year by conducting a workshop/conference to resolve most of their problems. The
sharing of experiences with concerned resource persons and experts would enable
each participating State to focus on the areas that are in demand and also to enable
them to use the best practices available in the respective States to meet the new
* The ITPs of 4-5 hours duration should be utilised for talkback-mechanism.
* On an average, each department should help to telecast more than two programmes
per month to keep GRAMSAT fully utilised and operational throughout the year. And
every programme should be unique and on public demand.
* The main factor for ITPs’ success is direct dependence on the working condition
of DRS and receiving signals of appropriate frequency for which the users should
be oriented with hands-on skills.
* Finally, if GRAMSAT has to reach to GPs along with public participation an operational
Manual covering Do’s and Dont’s on GRAMSAT should be circulated to all Centres preferably
in local language.
9. Documentation of ICT : Successful Cases on Telemedicine
V. Madhava Rao
Telemedicine is an application and technology, which enables transfer or exchange
of medical information from one specialist centre (clinic/hospitals) to another
over a distant place. It helps the patients in providing early advice at a cost
that is far below those of hospital visits thereby cutting the cost of hospitalisation.
Telemedicine is now making it simple for doctors to consult a medical case over
video conference through V-Sat or ISDN lines by exchanging the diagnostic quality
medical data which can contain X-Ray, MR imaging, CT Scan, Ultra Sound, Pathology
Slides, ECG (12 lead), live presentations and conducting CMEs (Continuing Medical
The main purpose of telemedicine is to enable health care providers and professionals
to offer their medical expertise to patients or together with other health provider
experts (using telecommunication systems to exchange video, audio or medically acquired
images) to facilitate remote or local health care delivery to patients. This is
done with the use of a network environment in hospitals, clinics or remote operation
theatres etc. An excellent application in the Indian scenario would be the use of
communication satellites to broadcast community health and family planning information.
Telemedicine has the potential to provide great advances in the medical field. Instant
access to information and the creation of an international medical society could
create a new era where medicine is more efficient, more accurate, and available
India today has more than 1 billion population and there is finite limit of elasticity
in providing health care in terms of infrastructure facility, manpower and the funds.
Wide disparities persist between different income groups, between rural and urban
communities, and between different States and even districts within State.
A major goal of telemedicine is to eliminate unnecessary travelling of patients
and their escorts. Image acquisition, image storage, image display and processing,
and image transfer represent the basis of telemedicine. Telemedicine is becoming
an integral part of health care services in several countries including the UK,
USA, Canada, Italy, Germany, Japan, Greece, and Norway and now in India.
Telemedicine allows transmission of health care services to wherever a patient is
in need, from wherever his Doctors are on line. This is done with the use of network
environment in hospitals, clinics or remote operation theaters etc.
The study objectives broadly cover the following parameters, specific to the study
of telemedicine sector in India, to examine the aspects of best practice/successful
cases in terms of infrastructure, operation, activities, reach, present position
and future activities.
* To specifically document successful ICT applications in telemedicine sector.
* To analyse and understand key factors that lead to the application being successful;
* To identify the conditions that are required for successful replication and scaling.
Study Area and Methodology
The Study Area covers the entire country and a selection was made from the States
and Union Territories based on the projects and programmes under telemedicine interventions
in selected States.
Numerous ICT applications have been developed in the country. These are bringing
manifold benefits to the rural people. The initiatives have been taken by NGOs,
Scientific Organisations, Research Organisations, Universities, Institutes, Business
houses, International Agencies and Government. These have brought in various interventions
through ICT, which is changing the rural scene for better and empowering people
to take their own decisions.
Initially all telemedicine pilots operating in the country being promoted by Government
of India, government hospitals, national level Institutes, corporate hospitals etc.
were documented where substantial dent in the implementation of telemedicine has
taken place with visible benefits to the people locally and regionally, through
exhaustive literature survey from secondary information using web, government records,
published materials and all other relevant sources. Based on a critical review on
the secondary information, selected telemedicine pilot projects were identified
which have generated significant impact in rural areas in the health care delivery
practices. The selected telemedicine projects identified across the country were
visited and through various research methodologies and tools namely focus group
discussion, observation, interactions, visits to places where telemedicine projects
are implemented, the impact and replicability aspect were studied.
Success Stories in Telemedicine
1. Gujarat : The Online Telemedicine Research Institute (OTRI) provided telemedicine
links for tele-consultation, thereby establishing 750 sessions in a period of 30
days in Bhuj after the earthquake in January, 2001.
2. Uttar Pradesh : During the Kumbh Mela festival held every 12 years, which drew
over 25 million pilgrims to the banks of river Ganga, the OTRI transferred data
(Cardiology and radiology data) of over 200 ailing pilgrims, besides sending microscope
images of micro organisms to monitor levels of cholera-causing bacteria in the river.
3. Bangalore : Asia Heart Foundation has successfully been practicing telecardiology
between Bangalore and cities in eastern India. Paramedics are guided to save the
patients suffering from Acute Myocardial Infraction by performing life-saving procedures
as per directions from doctors over video conferencing.
4. Chennai : Apollo is providing expert opinion from its tertiary level hospitals
in bigger cities to those in the farflung towns of India. In the period of around
27 months at Apollo over 4,000 patients had been benefited through teleconsultations
and over 75 per cent of those tele-consulted were treated in their respective cities.
EARTHQUAKE REHABILITATION PROJECT (JAMMU &
On the next day of the earthquake strikes POK, Jammu and Kashmir, Online Telemedicine
Research Institute started rescue work from their installed telemedicine system
at various centres in Jammu and Kashmir.
In Association with Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medicine Sciences,
Lucknow, and Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam of Government of Uttar Pradesh telemedicine
transfer between Kailas Mansarovar (Himalayas) route and SGPGI, Lucknow was undertaken
by the research team. This was successfully conducted via satellite phone as from
the magnanimous height of Himalayas and any form of communication between the stations
wasn’t possible. Media, government authorities, SGPGI and Health Minister, Uttar
Pradesh, appreciated this transmission. Several important personalities have viewed
this live telemedicine coverage in Lucknow and were greatly impressed by the performance.
KUMBH MELA FESTIVAL
Over 5 crores of people attended Kumbh Mela between 9th January, 2001 and 22nd February,
2001. A Primary Health Centre is situated at the site of Kumbh Mela. Telemedicine
transmission unit was established at the Primary Health Centre - Kumbh Mela site
which is connected to five different units (MLN Medical College, Allahabad, SGPGI,
Lucknow, Directorate General of Health, Lucknow and Secretary I.T., Lucknow). Routine
cases were treated at the Primary Health Centre but for major health problem Online
Tele-consultation with video-conferencing was done between Kumbh Mela and SGPGI,
Allahabad Medical College. Over 200 such major medical problems were successfully
transmitted and patients were benefited by expert advice and treatment while at
SUSHILA FOREST HOSPITAL, HALDWANI PROJECT
The project was started on 20-4-2001 with the telemedicine network between Sushila
Forest Hospital, Haldwani, and SGPGI, Lucknow. The project was sponsored by Sanjay
Gandhi Post Graduate Institute, Lucknow and Online Telemedicine Research Institute,
Ahmedabad and funded by Ministry of Information Technology, Goverment of India.
It was implemented by Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute, Lucknow and Online
Telemedicine Research Institute, Ahmedabad at the cost of Rs. 16.08 Lakhs.
BALLABHGARH - AIIMS PROJECT
On 7-11-2000 a telemedicine network was set up between General Hospital, Ballabhgarh,
India and AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The project was sponsored by all India Institute
of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and Online Telemedicine Research Institute, Ahmedabad
and funded by Online Telemedicine Research Institute, Ahmedabad. It was implemented
by All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and Online Telemedicine Research
Institute, Ahmedabad at a cost of Rs. 18.90 Lakhs.
From 7-8-2000 to 25-9-2000 a telemedicine project was carried out in the interior
of Himalayan region of Uttaranchal State where a telemedicine Network was set up
between the District Hospital, Pithoragarh, India and SGPGI, Lucknow. The project
was sponsored by Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute, Lucknow and Online Telemedicine
Research Institute, Ahmedabad and funded by Ministry of Information Technology,
Government of India. It was implemented by Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute,
Lucknow and Online Telemedicine Research Institute, Ahmedabad at the cost of Rs.
THE ARAGONDA (ANDHRA) STORY
As a pilot project a secondary level hospital was set up in a village called Aragonda
16 km from Chittoor (population 5000). This 40 bedded hospital was equipped with
a CT scan, a modern ultrasound, ECHO, automated laboratory equipment, an incubator,
automated ECG etc.
Starting from simple web cameras and ISDN telephone lines today the village hospital
has a state–of–the–art video conferencing system and a VSAT (Very Small Aperture
Terminal) satellite installed by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation). About
200 tele consultations have been given to this village alone from specialists and
super specialists from Chennai. A specially designed software (Mediscope) was used
and the clinical history and physical findings transferred from Aragonda. Arrangements
are now being made to provide emergency tele-consultation as well. When the tele-consultant
wanted to directly interact with the primary physician and the patient, a “net meeting”
was initially arranged. Later on with availability of better infrastructure a formal
video conference was held using state– –of–the–art Video conferencing equipment.
All such on line interactions were recorded and stored. Detailed clinical “examination”
of pseudo seizures, involuntary movements, Parkinsonism, myopathy etc., was possible.
Soon an electronic digital stethoscope will be made available so that auscultation
of the heart and lungs can also be done remotely. In almost all cases the tele consultant
was able to give a definite opinion and guide the local physician. Several serious
head injuries not requiring surgery were successfully managed in the village hospital.
THE SRIHARIKOTA STORY
Sriharikota Space Centre is an important launch pad of the Indian Space Research
Organisation located 130 kms from Chennai.
TELE EDUCATION PROJECTS
Tele-Education link at SGPGI, Lucknow and S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack is bringing
in a sea change in the health delivery and knowledge sharing among medical fraternity
and patients in the State of Orissa. The S.C.B. Medical College at Cuttack and SGPGI,
Lucknow is connected for the telemedicine purpose. The transfer of high-resolution
medical images like CT Scan, MRI, X-ray, angiography images and pathological slides
and video is being facilitated for taking various decisions on patient care and
ISRO TELEMEDICINE PROJECT
Online Telemedicine Research Institute along with ISRO started an ambitious project
in the North Eastern part of India on 15th September 2001 on a permanent basis.
The project is implemented by Online Telemedicine Research Institute; Space Application
Centre; Sundari District Hospital, Udayapur, Tripura and Rabindranath Tagore IICS,
Kolkata. The project is sponsored by Space Application Centre, Department of Space,
Government of India and funded by Space Application Centre, Department of Space,
Government of India.
DOCUMENTATION OF ICT SUCCESSFUL CASE STUDIES ON TELEMEDICINE CASE-I
AMRITA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES (AIMS)
Managed by the Mata Amritanandamayi Math in Kochi, Kerala, AIMS provides the highest
international standard of medical care, regardless of patient’s ability to pay.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has facilitated to extend the Amrita
Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS) telemedicine facility to connect 80 more district
hospitals to speciality hospitals in the north-eastern States of India. AIMS had
successfully launched its telemedicine facility in September 2002 to provide teleconsultation
to people of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep (UTL).
Perspective of Medical Practitioners
Doctors are not fully convinced and familiar with e-medicine. They cannot understand
how their jobs can be performed more effectively and efficiently through the use
of e-medicine. Similarly, practitioners in remote areas feel threatened that they
will be surpassed due to the reach of brand names like APOLLO and Asia Heart Foundation
Patients’ Fear and Unfamiliarity
There is a lack of confidence in patients, about the outcome of e-Medicine. The
main problem is that any treatment consists of two factors; first is chemotherapy
i.e. treatment by medicines and the other is psychotherapy that means treatment
by emotions which is absent in e-medicine.
There has been several isolated initiatives from various organisations and hospitals
for the implementation of e-medicine projects. But the technology and communication
costs being too high make it financially unfeasible.
Lack of Basic Amenities
In India, nearly 40 per cent of population live below the poverty level. Basic amenities
like transportation, electricity, telecommunication, safe drinking water, primary
health services, etc. are absent. Literacy rate and diversity in language : Only
65.38 per cent of India’s population is literate with only 2 per cent wellversed
in English. So the rest of the people are facing problems in adopting e-Medicine.
Also, the presence of a large number of regional languages makes the applicability
of a single software difficult for the entire country.
E-medicines supported by various types of software and hardware, still needs to
mature. For correct diagnosis and pacing of data, we require advanced biological
sensors and more bandwidth support. “Quality is the essence” and every one wants
it, but can sometimes create problems. In case of health care, there is no proper
governing body to form guidelines in this respect and motivate the organisations
to follow, it is solely on organisations how they take it.
The government has limitations and so does private enterprises. Any technology in
its primary stages, needs care and support. Only the government has the resources
and the power to help it survive and grow. But in India we are not the favoured
ones. There is no such initiatives taken by the government to develop it.
Diagnosis itself is a complex process and symptoms of disease are not consistent
in all the patients. The consultant makes a disease diagnosis on the basis of information
gleamed from the patient. In e-medicine the consultant tests the hypothesis, it
may be right or wrong.
Telemedicine National Task Force
* It is recommended that a National Task Force for telemedicine be constituted.
This task force would define standards and structures of electronic medical records
and patient data bases which could be accessed on a National Telemedicine Grid.
* The task force should not merely be a recommending authority but should preferably
have some say in the actual execution of decisions taken.
* The task force should have members from Ministry of IT, Ministry of Health, C-DAC,
DOT, ICMR, ISRO, NGOs, corporate hospitals and organisations that already have done
considerable work in the field of telemedicine.
* The task force or any other appropriate identified body could have association
with International Telemedicine Society to look at the possibilities of a global
exchange of information and views on all aspects associated with telemedicine.
Telemedicine National Policy
* There is need to define a policy framework to facilitate the introduction of telemedicine
and to give it a legitimate place in the health plans, missions and infrastructure
of the nation.
* Given the national priorities, it is essential that telemedicine and Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) play an important role in the primary and public
health system. All efforts will be made to explore and promote this priority.
* Efforts have already been made to define standards for telemedicine software.
However, there is need to promote these standards and ensure their compliance.
* It is proposed to develop interoperability of all software packages.
* To enhance user friendliness, interaction between doctors and vendors should be
* Efforts are needed to convert the existing telemedicine terminals to interoperable
* Bandwidth is the most important component of the recurring costs. All telecom
agencies should be encouraged to provide bandwidth at a lower rate for telemedicine
purposes. This should be applicable not only to space, but also, terrestrial links
and mobile connection networks.
* Telecom agencies should be appraised of the national needs cost reduction.
* The IT Ministry should frame appropriate policy guidelines and methodologies for
providing telemedicine software and hardware at subsidised rates.
* There is an urgent need to create awareness about telemedicine in the community
of medical practices.
* There are 100 locations in the country where telemedicine has already been installed.
Each of these institutions should organise a local workshop and share their experiences
with the doctors/hospitals of the negihbourhood.
* Telemedicine should be introduced as a topic in the curriculum of MBBS to familiarise
future generation of doctors with telemedicine.
* Telemedicine (health informatics) should be introduced as a topic in the curriculum
of college of engineering to enable future engineers/IT students to realise the
importance of ICT in healthcare.
* A large number of States have GRAMSAT networks, which are being used for training
the field staff. The training of health staff on the networks would cover telemedicine
These are still early days to judge the efficacy of IT in the health sector. There
is a need for a concerted effort by all sections of society in order to achieve
the goals. Partnerships between the government and the private sector can rejuvenate
the primary health system by brining new inputs in the form of IT into the basic
infrastructure of the healthcare system. Low-cost solutions, which increase access
to quality healthcare in remote areas are of particular relevance.
Considerable scope exists for the creation of databases on diseases, prevention,
cure, health and hygiene and for the dissemination of such information. Databases
can also include traditional medicines and cures. Internet-based campaigns to improve
understanding/reduce the impact of myths and certain traditional beliefs-for example,
related to STD, AIDS and leprosy – can be undertaken. Telecentre networks can be
useful nodal points for disaster mitigation, especially during the outbreak of epidemics.
The creation of health education forums for awareness of good health practices,
adoption of preventive measures and proactive participation in the health reforms
process are the other possibilities for people’s action. This is where the challenge
lies in the deployment of IT for the health populations in developing nations such
Now that tele-medicine has made its debut in India, patients are counting the benefits,
rather than the costs.
The way the telemedicine is expanding in India, it is expected that within few years,
there will be telemedicine kiosks throughout the length and breadth of suburban
and rural India. No Indian will be deprived of a specialist consultation wherever
he/she stays, which will be practical reality in the country.
The first generation of telemedicine enthusiasts should not forget that technology
should be used as a support to treat patients and not viewed as a goal in itself.
The challenge today is not confined to overcoming technological barriers, insurmountable
though they may appear.
Due to pressure from powerful vendors the perceived needs for telemedicine may not
conform to the actual needs. The take off problems, facing telemedicine is legion.
Telemedicine today sounds help and cool, but the reality may be quite different.
The future however promises to be exciting. Time alone will tell whether telemedicine
is a “forward step in a backward direction” or to paraphrase Neil Armstrong “one
small step for ICT but one giant leap for Healthcare”.
10. Suicides and Coping Mechanisms adopted by Rural Women
M. Thaha, A. Rizwana, A.V. Yadappannavar,
C. Dheeraja and M. Krishnaveni
When the farmer ends his life, it naturally leaves the dependents in distress on
several fronts-economic, social and psychological. The entire burden of running
the family as well as agricultural operations rests on the shoulders of the wife
of the deceased farmer. While suffering psychological trauma caused by the loss
of the life partner, she has to solely bear the brunt of humiliation from the moneylenders
and at the same time forced to take up some economic activity for survival. To bail
out the families caught in such tragedies, the governments in some States introduced
an interim special package to provide economic support and rehabilitation measures.
There are a number of studies conducted on the factors leading to suicide among
farmers but very little has been done to undestand the impact of suicides of breadwinner
in families particularly where women are concerned. In order to fill this gap, the
present study has been taken up focussing mainly on the post death plight of the
widows and the coping mechanisms.
* To understand the shift in gender roles of widows;
* To study the problems faced by the widows and the extent to which these could
* To document the mechanisms adopted by the widows to cope up with the situations;
* To understand the measures taken by the government to provide assistance to the
Study Area and Methodology
The study has been carried out in the States of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
and Punjab wherein the sample households have been selected from two districts in
each State, depending on the concentration of suicide cases of farmers. The sample
size depending on the number of suicide cases range from 9 to 15 in each district,
during the reference period January 2003 to December 2004. Out of the total sample
of 104, 42 per cent are from OBC category, followed by 32.6 per cent belonging to
OC category and remaining are SC and ST.
The primary data were collected from the widows of the suicide victims through discussion
with the help of a comprehensive schedule. The information gathered from primary
sources include the reasons for the suicides, the impact of suicides on the widows,
coping mechanisms to manage the difficult situation, assistance received from different
sources, and the extent of problems solved. Secondary data were collected at the
level of State, district and tehsil/mandal regarding farmers who committed suicides
and the measures taken by the government to provide assistance to such families.
Simple statistical techniques were used for data analysis, which has been utilised
for generating tables and diagrams for the study.
The study centres around the widows of farmers who committed suicide. These farmers
were mostly in the age group of 30-50. A majority of them were illiterate (51.9
per cent). Their main occupation was farming. However, in Andhra Pradesh some of
them were also working as agricultural labourers. As high as 88 per cent of them
were from nuclear families and in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Punjab very few were
living in joint families. Therefore, the head of the household had to face the problems.
The main reason for suicide by these farmers was debt. Due to drought situation
resulting in crop failure and failure of bore wells, the farmers became indebted
and most of them could not repay the loans whereas the pressure from moneylenders
in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh for repayment of loans has further aggravated the
The widows of the suicide victims who are the respondents of this study are in the
age group of 31-40 years wherein one can have relatively grown up children. However,
there are also widows who are below 30 years having small children to be looked
after. Like their husbands, a majority of the respondents are also illiterate and
some of them are educated upto primary and secondary levels.
Being in the farmers’ family, their main source of income was agriculture. But after
the death of the husband the situation changed to some extent and some of these
households who were doing farming earlier have to work in others’ farm as they have
lost their lands to the moneylenders or relatives. As a result the number of members
working as agriculture labour has increased after the death of the main bread earner.
The decrease in the number of farmers is maximum in A.P. whereas in the State of
Karnataka and Punjab there is also slight increase in the number of widow farmers
as they are now compelled to take care of their agricultural land after the demise
of their husbands. Some widows have also taken up other income generating activities
like domestic worker, animal husbandry etc.
The annual income of a majority of these households is less than rupees ten thousand
and those having annual income upto rupees twenty thousand were 41 per cent. It
is very disheartening to note that many households whose earlier income was rupees
ten thousand to rupees twenty thousand, after the death of the farmer have slided
down to below rupees ten thousand income bracket.
Overall about 77 per cent of the other family members in these households were not
earning before the incident. But now after the death of the main bread earner the
situation has changed and the number of persons entirely dependent has reduced considerably
to almost less than half. Similarly the households wherein one or two members were
working before has also gone up to 52 per cent from 20 per cent earlier. Other members
of the family have also joined farming and many of them are also working as agriculture
labour. Other activities for which the family members have opted are service, construction
work, working in hotels and petty business.
The sample households indebtedness has forced them to take extreme step. The quantum
of borrowed amount ranges from rupees twenty thousand to about rupees five lakhs.
It is encouraging to note that there are households who have fully or partly repaid
Shift in Gender Role of Widows
Role of women and men are determined by the socio-cultural environment. In general,
women in rural areas are responsible for all domestic activities such as household
chores, looking after children as well as cattle rearing, assisting in crop production.
By and large activities like crop farming, marketing of produces, other outside
works, taking care of social obligations are the main responsibilities of the male
members. However, as a consequence of the death of the husband there is shift in
the geneder role of the widows.
As a result in all the four States, the study revealed that work load of the widows
has increased to the extent of 48.35 per cent. The household chores and taking care
of children which are considered as women’s main responsibility has increased after
the demise of the husband.
Problems of Widows
In the pre-demise period they used to take care of the household work and the children
and assist the husband in crop farming. But after the death of the husband she has
to face economic, social as well as health problems. The problems like harassment
within the family or outside, non-transfer of assets, non-acceptance in social gatherings,
health problems and depressions have come up after the death of their husbands.
There were two major problems which many of these households were facing when the
main bread earner was alive. These were debt and meeting daily expenditure. Now
the widows, as head of the households are responsible for taking care of these problems.
About 77 households are facing problem of debt before the head of the household
committed suicide ranging from twenty thousand to around rupees three lakhs. Repayment
of the loan is now the responsibility of the widows. Almost widows have been compelled
by the circumstances to borrow money from different sources for agriculture purposes.
Meeting their daily expenditure is a major problem in many households (43 per cent),
further another 33 per cent of the widows are also in this pathetic condition. A
mere one third of the respondents are able to manage the situation to some extent.
Even though most of the respondents (88 per cent) are from nuclear families, still
there are eight cases of harassment from family members particularly, in-laws. There
are also a few instances of harassment in the farms.
The widows also feel that now they do not command that respect from the society,
which they used to have when the husbands were alive. They also find non-acceptance
in the society and in the social functions especially on the auspicious occasions.
The common practice is that after the death of the husband the land is tranferred
in the name of widow or in the joint name of the mother and sons. This change is
incorporated in the pattadars pass book or warisnama. In such cases, where the land
is in the name of the father-in-law such transfer of land ownership to widows and
children do not take place. In about one-third of the cases the land has not been
transferred in the widows’ name, and the banks are not willing to finance for agriculture
since they fall short of eligibility for getting subsidy from the government.
The widows in apathetic situation have different coping mechanism for solving their
problems, for meeting daily expenditure and the effort has been to enhance the household
income. Different alternatives available to these households for increasing their
income are livestock, farm labour, working as maid-servants etc. Even the children
in the household, not only the boys but also the girls have been sent to work. The
relatives like brothers have been helping in some case. Daily provisions have been
bought on credit basis from the shops. There was also transformation from nuclear
family to join family to share the expenditure. In extreme cases, the family members
have reduced their food intake to the extent of keeping their soul and body together
thereby reducing the expenditure.
In most of the cases the debts have been cleared with the government assitance.
Income generated from additional work taken up by the members of the households
have been utilised for repaying the debt.
Women who are being harassed by the in-laws in the households have moved from joint
family to a nuclear family. Some widows are counter attacking for setting the issues
The state of depression and suicidal tendency are rampant among the widows and some
of them are taking help of their relatives. Invariably the children have been a
source of inspiration for them.
For transfer of asset including land, women have taken the help of village elders
and government officials. Similarly for managing the new activity taken up by the
widows they are lending their help and support.
Those women mainly depending on their husbands for the outside works have found
it difficult to manage things on their own and these women have sought help of family
members, relatives, neighbours, village elders, panchayats, government officials,
banks, NGOs and CBOs and political leaders.
Neighbours have helped the victims by taking them to the hospital, performing the
cermony and supporting during the course of seeking outside work and negotiating
with banks and moneylenders.
The village elders along with family members, relatives and neighbours have also
provided assistance like giving their advise and guidance, financial assistance,
going to the panchayat/mandal office, arranging for the required documents, talking
to the officials, getting the post-mortem done etc.
Different institutions including agriculture departments have taken initiative for
arranging government assistance to these households. Banks extend time for loan
settlement and in rare case writing off the loan in case of small amount. In A.P.,
the Gram Panchayats have extended the help of most of the suicide widows. In Karnataka,
the number of widows assisted by the Gram Panchayats in meagre.
The State government has looked into the tragedy of farmer’s suicides and sufferings
of the bereaved families and have taken measures for minimising the problems of
the family members of the victims. Accordingly government assistance as an interim
special package to support the family of the farmers who committed suicide is now
available in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. In Punjab,
provision of assistance to the grieved family is under active consideration of the
The Government of Andhra Pradesh is relatively more liberal and assistance in the
form of ex-gratia compensation of rupees one lakh and a one time debt clearance
up to Rs. 50,000 is available to the affected family. In addition to the financial
assistance, arrangements have also been made to provide schooling, housing and pension
for the family members
In the State of Maharashtra, government assistance for eligible cases is rupees
one lakh out of which Rs. 30,000 is paid in cash to spouse of the victim and Rs.
70,000 is kept in a fixed deposit at the Post Office. In Maharashtra, though the
outstanding loans in most cases were more than the cash assistance received, still
2/3 of the assistance amount was kept in fixed deposit in the Post Office. This
has provided a continuous source of income to the family for meeting their day–to–day
expenditure and also kept the vested interest away from the family.
As in the case of Maharasthra, the Karnataka State is also providing a relief package
of rupees one lakh to bereaved families. In Karnataka, less than 50 per cent of
the widows are considered for government assistance and many of the households had
taken loans from moneylenders and not from banks.
The government assistance have been utilised for clearing the loans either fully
or partially. Some amount has also been utilised for consumption purposes or for
medical treatment. In A.P. there are cases of utilisation of assistance for starting
micro enterprises, education of children, performing social functions and for farming.
The government assistance received by the widows in Karnataka has been utilised
by a majority for clearing the loans. A few widows have also kept money in fixed
deposits in the name of their children. Others have utilised some portion of this
money for various activities like land development, release of land from mortgage,
In addition to financial assistance received by the widows they have also been covered
under different schemes in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In Andhra Pradesh, the
schemes under which some of the widows have been provided additional assistance
are : National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS), Widow Pension, IAY Housing, Hostel
for Children, DPIP/Velugu, Watershed, SGSY, BC Corporation Programme, ICTS, LIC/Crop
Insurance, Antodaya. In Karnataka, a large number of widows have been covered under
widow pension scheme. Assistance has been provided to some of the widows under Ashraya
Housing, SGSY, moratorium on bank loans.
Extent of Problems Solved
As regards meeting daily expenditure which is a major problem, there are some households
though limited in number have solved these problems. It was found that in about
66 households, the problems could be solved only partially as their income was not
adequate to take care of their total requirements. What is a matter of concern is
that the situation is some households had not improved although number of such cases
are small. Similarly, debts were fully repaid in a few cases with the assistance
received from the government, and in a majority of cases, it was partially repaid
whereas a good number of households could not repay their loan amount at all. Such
cases are mostly from Punjab where there is no provision to provide financial assistance
from government to the family of the farmers who commit suicide. Some of the cases
are from Karnataka where the government assistance was available to only a few affeced
households and those who could not get assistance had not cleared their debts.
There are also cases of harassment of widows within the family. Harassment at work
place has also been solved fully in a large number of cases. Lower social status
problem of the respondents were encountered in a majority of cases and were solved
fully or partially.
Suicide of bread winner has a direct bearing on the socioeconomic and psychological
conditions of a family, particularly on women who are most vulnerable section of
society. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the shift in gender
roles of women due to sudden demise of the husband. It was obvious that women’s
workload has increased both in the house as well as outside making her more stressful.
It is evident from the study that the major economic problems of widows are two-fold
– meeting daily expenditure and repayment of debt. With the additional income generated
by the members of the family by going for different livelihoods the problem of meeting
daily expenditure has been solved to a great extent. Similarly those who received
assistance from the government by and large could repay the debts.
Some of the coping mechanisms adopted by these women were not positive like sending
young children for work and reducing the food intake to overcome the problem of
meeting daily expenditure, counter attack (and ignoring the situations) in the case
of harassment at work palce and at home. Added to the trauma of bereavement all
these socio-economic problems have further aggravated the mental health of the widows
resulting in depression and suicidal tendency. It is a serious problem affecting
maximum number of widows. The stakeholders in the villages like teachers, village
elders and leaders may help them to handle the problems in a right way.
Seeking help from various institutions was a prominent coping mechanism adopted
by almost all the widows. Panchayats have extended help to some of the widows in
getting post mortem, police enquiry, relief package and assistance from other government
schemes. In addition (as an immediate measure) the panchayat members can also take
up counseling of the widows and in due course can help in solving minor domestic
It becomes clear from the study that relief package offered by the government could
certainly provide immediate succor to the families of the deceased farmers left
in severe distress. However Andhra Pradesh relief package covering one time settlement
of debts and rehabilitation measures (through convergence of schemes) for the farmer’s
suicide victim’s families can be model for other States.
11. Predictors of Motivation and Job Satisfaction among
Gyanmudra and T. Vijay Kumar
Organisational behaviour is an exciting field of study concerned with human behaviour
at work. It involves understanding, predicting and control of human behaviour, and
a factor that influences the performance of individuals and groups in an organisation.
The organisation in which people’s work affect their thoughts, feelings, and actions
in the workplace and away from it. Likewise, people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions
affects their thoughts, feelings and actions in the workplace and away from it.
In most of the programmes either in agriculture or welfare, money has been used
as an incentive. It has also been the experience that when money value ceases to
operate in a programme, the motivation level again recedes to an earlier level.
Using external stimulation like money for motivating people with general objectives
of betterment of the people has only an immediate impact and does not have long
term sustenance value.
Given that there are differences in motivational levels across different categories
of employees it would be useful to study the predictors of motivation. Against this
background, the purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of motivation
and job satisfaction among rural development functionaries.
* To study the predictors of motivation in routine work.
* To analyse the job satisfaction in development functionaries
* To propose suitable motivational strategies for development functionaries.
Study Area and Methodology
To find out the objectives on factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction,
data were collected from 352 government employees representing 5 departments (Education,
Panchayati Raj Health, Agriculture, Social Welfare) from two States i.e. Tamil Nadu
The present study was carried out in the district of Gajapati in the State of Orissa
and Tanjavur district from Tamil Nadu. There was a discussion with the employees
of different departments, i.e., Education, Panchayati Raj, Health, Agriculture,
Social Welfare and others, in order to get the supportive data. There was an indepth
interview with government officials at various levels to get qualitative insights.
The questionnaire was designed to assess employees perceptions about their motivation
and job satisfaction in that different aspects of the workplace including, physical
work space, work environment, training, workload, pay, benefits, promotional opportunities
and supervision and stress. In addition, demographic information regarding employee
gender, age, and job profile, caste, religion, financial level, was also collected.
Predictors of general job satisfaction were tested by controlling statistically
for gender, job tenure, and current job. Analysing the responses with respect to
motivation and job satisfaction, quite interesting findings were observed.
* There is a common notion that monetary incentives enhance motivation but this
was not the case in the development functionaries. Different salary levels were
compared in both the States, only at the lowest level of salary that is below Rs.
2000 were high on motivational level in Tamil Nadu State in comparison to Orissa
employees. As far as motivation was concerned at different levels of salary, employees
were same in both the States, but job satisfaction was significantly different at
the lowest and middle level of salary (below Rs.2000) and (Rs. 4001-6000) between
two States. Tamil Nadu employees were high on job satisfaction though the salary
was quite low. They were quite satisfied with that.
* Since data were collected from different departments that are Education, Panchayati
Raj, Health, Agriculture, Social Welfare, Animal Husbandry, Revenue, these departments
were analysed with respect of motivation and job satisfaction. While comparing motivation
level of development functionaries of Tamil Nadu State, there was a significant
difference at motivation level in education department in comparison to Orissa.
Rest other departments showed no such difference about their level of motivation.
There are three motivational determinants perception of autonomy, perception of
competence, and perception of relatedness. Autonomy refers to people’s need to feel
that they are in control of what is happening, and that the consequences they face
are directly linked to their choices. Competence refers to their desires to interact
effectively with their surroundings, and relatedness to their desire to be connected
to others and to experience a sense of belonging.
A concept similar to intrinsic motivation is that of flow, which is described as
the pleasurable “holistic sensation which people feel when they act with total involvement.
It has nine main characteristics. (a) The existence of a balance between the perceived
skills of an individual and the perceived challenges of a situation, (b) merging
of action and awareness, (c) the presence of clear goals, (d) the presence of unambiguous
feeback, (e) concentration on the task at hand, (f) a sense of control over oneself
and the environment, (g) loss of self-consciousness, (h) transformation of time,
and (i) enjoyable nature of the experience.
* There was no difference found in their level of job satisfaction.
* There was no gender effect on the motivation and job satisfaction as males and
females perceived the same. Caste and religion effect was also analysed and found
no such difference in job satisfaction and motivation.
* Pride in one’s work, incentives, transparency, infrastructure,working atmosphere,
stimulating and challenging job, punishing people and working gives self respect,
these factors emerged as predictors of motivation.
This study proposes and assesses the argument that job satisfaction of government
employees is determined by three sets of variables : job characteristics, organisational
characteristics, and individual characteristics. Job characteristics refer to variables
that described characteristics of jobs performed by employees. Organisational characteristics
refer to variables that describe characteristics of the organisation in which the
jobs are performed. Individual characteristics refer to variables that described
characteristics of the employees who perform the jobs. It should be noted that these
variable are not mutually exclusive without any overlap. For example, a person’s
pay satisfaction is not unrelated to that person’s organisational commitment, and
they all affect the person’s job satisfaction.
JOB SATISFACTION AMONG EMPLOYEES
Job satisfaction among employees were dependent on these factors : communitcation
and information flow, interpersonal relationship, the manner in which their efforts
are valued, level of job security, personal growth and development, the methods
of conflict resolution, organisation climate, quantity of work expected/allotted,
rewarded for work done, degree of motivation, facing continuous stress.
Organisational commitment in the individual’s sense of attachment to the organisation
and the actions that they take as a result of this attachment. Individuals who were
committed to the values and goals of the organisation had higher levels of motivation.
Motivational Strategies for Development Functionaries
However, by changing people’s motivation from extrinsic to intrinsic, and by meeting
their lower needs and providing a chance for self-actualisation, a greater understanding
of the welfare system may be brought about. However, this brings up the question
about the fundamentals of human nature and social loafing.
* Motivational interventions should focus on improving the individual and organisational
readiness to benefit from working.
* Enhancing the perceived value of the training programme by clearly explaining
the benefits that an individual will derive from the work they will receive (Such
as skill development, opportunities for job redesign, and enhancing work place satisfaction
* Reinforcing that correct use of skills learned during the work, will be positively
* This strategy would enhance the employees’ level of commitment to the organisation
and positively influence motivation to work.
* To instrinsically motivate them this would be best achieved if the workers enjoy
what they do and can become wrapped up in it, thus achieving flow. To instrinscially
motivate them would be to let them take a role in decision making (Participatory
* Additionally, if employees’ values are congruent with their employers and they
are doing their jobs (competency), as well as doing them in a friendly environment
(relatedness) that provides opportunities for them to do their best (self-actualisation),
then high job satisfaction is possible.
12. Stress Audit - Study on Rural Development Institutions
at District Level and Below
B. Udaya Kumar Reddy
Rural Development institutions work in enabling the community and rural poor to
participate in the decision making process, overseeing the implementation to ensure
adherence to guidelines, quality, equity and efficiency; reporting to the prescribed
authorities on the implementation; and promoting transparency in decision-making
and implementation. In view of the above task, the officials of DRDA and ZP will
be under constant stress risk assessment that identifies the location(s), extent,
causes and effects of stress within risks of an organisation. As the study is to
investigate the role of Stress in Rural Development Institutions, the objectives
are as follows :
* To identify the sources of stress that exists in RD Institutions.
* To assess the distress and disfunction, if any, among RD institutions’ officials;
* To analyse individual differences that can moderate the stress response; and
* To find out stress or predictors in RD institutions.
Study Area and Methodology
The present study was carried out in Krishna and Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh
State, 24 South Paraganas and Howrah district of West Bengal State, Aurangabad and
Pune districts of Maharashtra State, Patna and Muzaffarpur districts of Bihar State.
Major source of stress was found to be life events. Out of 38 numbers of life events
“trouble with colleagues” ranked first, followed by “change in residence” and “illness
of family members positions”. Majority of respondents experienced moderate role
stress. As far as organisational climate is concerned most of functionaries expresses
that there is dysfunctional climate in the organisation. Majority of respondents
expressed that they are able to meet the expectations of required functional competencies.
Almost all respondents expressed distress and were unable to strike work life balance
which is an alarming trend because the effective functioning of the organisation
depends upon the well being of their employees. Ulcer was more among RD functionaries
followed by hypertension and diabetes.
As far as locus of control is concerned, half of the respondents showed internal
locus of control. There was no significant relation of locus of control with distress
and not emerged as modifier of stress. More than half of the respondents showed
moderate anxiety level, moderate type ‘A’ behaviour pattern and self-concept. These
variables had strong positive relation with not only distress but also its sub-groups.
Nearly, half of the respondents were under low category of depression, with regard
to overall distress and its sub-groups, a strong association was found. Nearly,
half of the respondents showed obesity, expressed good neutral balance and also
exhibited moderate adaptive coping.
* Work life balance programmes are needed to tackle role stress, educate on life
events, prevent distress and improve physical quotient and relaxation skills among
* Positive thinking and emotional intelligence programmes are to be provided with
DRDA and ZP officials for strengthening employees, stress modifying variables like
behaviour pattern, emotional intelligence, self esteem and psychological hardness.
* Management has to provide functional organisational climate to improve extension,
expert influence and achievement motives among staff and officers at field level
and department level.
* Management needs to create a facility for counseling services at district level
for addressing high anxiety level and depressive employees of RD Institutions.
* Stress audit scale needs to be administered annually at district level for benchmarking
and effective monitoring of RD functionaries performance.
13. Community and Government Initiatives in Rainwater Harvesting
for Drinking Water : A Case Study in Two Districts of Tamil Nadu
P. Siva Ram and P. Durgaprasad
In India, the availability of fresh water varies from place to place based on its
geophysical and natural resources. Irrational and unsustainable water withdrawal
from groundwater tanks and reservoirs for agriculture and industries has been rising
causing drinking water scarcity.
India is mainly depending on monsoon rains. The average annual rainfall is about
1170 mm and this is considered just adequate to cater to the needs of the people,
agriculture and industry. However, there are certain negative aspects in the pattern
of rainfall, which considerably reduce its net value in spite of it being reasonably
good in terms of quantity. The rainfall is not evenly spread over the entire country.
There is temporal and spatial variability. Some areas have “harmful abundance” resulting
in floods and some other areas has a meagre rainfall resulting in acute scarcity
and drought. The State Government and the communities are not tapping properly the
rainwater for drinking, domestic and agriculture purposes.
In the modern day context, Tamil Nadu is the only State having successfully
implemented large scale rainwater harvesting programmes including rooftop rainwater
harvesting at community and household levels.
* To analyse the nature and extent of household, community and Government initiatives
in rainwater harvesting.
* To analyse social mobilisation and community participation processes focussing
* To list the contributions of PRIs, NGOs and CBOs in planning and implementation
* To analyse the RHW technologies, costs and methods of water storage, treatment
and handling practices.
* To assess the impact of rainwater harvesting technology on availability of drinking
Study Area and Methodology
The study was conducted in Ramanathapur and Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu as
the rain water harvesting practice has been widespread in these districts. From
each district, three blocks, Kadaladi, Mantapam and Parmakudi in Ramanathapuram
district, and Radhapuram, Tenkeesiu and Palayamkollai in Tirunelveli district were
selected for the study. From each block, two villages were selected for in-depth
study. A total of six blocks and eight villages were selected for the study. The
sample villages included Michelpatnam, M. Saveriarpatnam, Tamarakiulam, Selvangapauram,
Thotakudi, Tadapati-Samudram, Mallipulliarkullam and Edengudi.
From each sample village, a sample of 30 household users (8 villages x 30 households
= 240 households) were selected and interviewed through a structured interview schedule.
Secondary data on RWH were collected from concerned departments at State and district
Participatory tools such as group interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and
semi-structured interviews were used for identifying the best practices relating
to rainwater harvesting in the sample villages.
A structured interview schedule was used to gather information about the nature
and extent of government initiatives in RHW and the costs involved in structures,
storage and treatment (objectives 1 and 4). Participatory tools were used to understand
the aspects of social mobilisation, community participation and the contributions
of CBOs and PRIs (objectives 2 and 3) where required a combination of quantitative
and PRA tools were used.
The Criteria for selection of the villages included
* Presence of SC/ST population
* Presence of active/inactive panchayats
* Acuteness/adequacy of drinking water problem
* Quality of programme implementation
* Extent of people’s participation
* Remoteness/proximity from headquarters
* Progressive/backward villages were among other key indicators
* The promulgation of ordinance on RWH by the Government of Tamil Nadu has had a
significant impact on the implementation of RWH systems in the sample villages.
Each household had adopted the rooftop rainwater harvesting system which is connected
to an Oorani. The Ooranies are the major source of drinking water. The survey reports
of CGWB and TWAD show that groundwater level has significantly increased in the
* Major problems related to quality of water in the study area include excess fluoride
and brackishness. Several remedial measures are being taken by the TWAD board and
NGO like DANIDA, Water Aid etc. to root out problems related to water.
* Field-testing kits were distributed to all the Junior Engineers of TWAD board
for water quality testing and monitoring in the villages. It is ensuring water quality
monitoring and surveillance of drinking water by testing each and every selected
source of water supply. The board is having a well developed hydro-geological wing
with state-of-the-art equipment.
* A network of laboratories established in every district with a State level laboratory
at Chennai is ensuring constant water quality surveillance. The villagers contact
these Water Quality labs for testing their own water sources like borewells, open
wells and Ooranies. The field evidences revealed that the water quality testing
is being done regularly every month in the sample villages.
* Ramanathapuram district is aptly called as “The Land of Tanks and Ooranies”. Ooranies
are of two types. The first type provides drinking water and the other type is used
for bathing, washing and irrigation purposes. The people are using the Ooranies
for drinking water purposes for quite sometime.
* The sources of drinking water in the sample villages were : (1) Ooranies, (2)
hand-pumps and (3) piped/tap water supply. The analysis indicated that out of 240
respondents, nearly 45 per cent of them were depending on Oorani water for drinking
and cooking purposes. The rest were utilising hand pumps and piped water supply
* The Ooranies of sample villages fall under the category of common property resources.
The field-based discussions revealed that VWSCs have been maintaining the Ooranies
with the support of Gram Panchayats. The VWSCs are collecting the water charges
at the rate of 10 per month, which is being used for desilting the Ooranies once
in two years.
* More than two-thirds of the respondents felt that the Ooranies and temple tanks
should be revived, while the rest opined that revival was not required as they have
taken tap connections and are also depending on private water sellers. It was observed
that many water structures were damaged in the sample villages. Therefore, the revival
of these water systems is the need of the hour. Ooranies are economically viable,
safe and can cover a large number of communities.
* Big Ooranies can store up to 5760 million litres. The DRDA and TWAD board have
made significant efforts to rejuvenate drinking water Ooranies in the district on
pilot basis with the technical guidance of the Centre for Environmental Studies
and Centre for Water Resources, Anna University. The government has since extended
the project to other districts in the State. Every district has atleast 10 rejuvenated
Ooranies under SGRY programme.
* The (clay) soil of the sample villages of Ramanthapuram surface water contains
high turbidity. In order to reduce the turbidity, the villagers are using seeds
called Thetthan (Teertham) Kottai. Generally, the women folk collect drinking water
from Oorani. The collected water is poured into an earthen pot after vigorously
rubbing the inner area of the pot with the seed. Sedimentation occurs in 15-30 minutes.
This seed is abundantly available in the local market at the rate of Rs. 2 for 100
grams. One seed will do for treating 15 litres of turbid water.
* The water tanker has come to symbolise Ramanthapuram District’s water crisis.
The researchers have observed that drinking water was being sold through water tankers.
The Oorani water is not sufficient for meeting the entire drinking and cooking needs
of the users round the year. Therefore, they buy drinking water from private water
sellers who visit the villages in the mornings and evenings, especially in summer.
The price of a 15 litre bucket of water is Rs.2. Every day, a villager purchases
one or two buckets by spending Rs.4. However, the purchase depends on the family
size. They were thus spending Rs.120 per month for drinking water. Even below poverty
line people are spending similar amounts per month. Furthermore, they mentioned
that water quality is not assured and some times it is brackish. The Government
is evidently unable to supply adequate drinking water to the villages of Ramanthapuram
* In the sample villages of Tirunelveli district, only 18 per cent of respondents
were dependent on Ooranies for drinking water and cooking purposes.
* The users had easy accessibility to the available technology developed by TWAD
board. Adopting this technology, the villagers made roof-top RWH arrangements for
all the individual houses. Separate arrangements are provided to drain out the initial
rainwater. The collection system with filter media is used for purifying the water
which is collected in the drinking water Oorani through a network of pipelines connected
to every household rooftop. Thus, the network piping outflow runs on the principle
* Women’s participation is very high in the sample villages. They had contributed
the money as well as shramadhan (free labour) for rejuvenation of Ooranies. Easy
access to water within the village has helped them to not only concentrate on other
socio-economic activities but also helped them undertake part-time economic activities
like charcoal making.
* In schools and panchayats buildings, rainwater harvesting structures were constructed
for collecting water in the sample villages. These buildings’ roof-gutters were
connected to saline affected bore-wells. Whenever rainfall occurs, the rainwater
seeps into the aquifers and arrests the salinity especially in the rainy and winter
seasons. Thus, salinity in the bore-wells has significantly reduced in the sample
* The villagers in the FGDs said that the TWAD board and DRDA should allocate more
funds for revival of Ooranis and temple tanks instead of investing on costly and
unreliable hand-pumps and piped water supply.
* The State Governments, should make necessary laws for compulsory implementation
of rainwater harvesting in all the households and institutions.
* Farmers should go for low water consumption crops but the reality is that heavy
water consumption crops (like paddy and banana) are being grown in the sample villages.
* Usage of plastic vessels, which are made with recycled plastic for carrying and
storing drinking water was high in the sample villages. Obviously, consumption of
this water can create health problems.
* Traditional water treatment methods like Thetaam Kottai should be encouraged by
the Government and they should be disseminated to other villages in the sample districts
as well as other districts in the State.
14. Fund Utilisation for Creation of Durable Assets - A
Study of DRDA / ZP in Two States
P. Praveena Sri
The prosperity of villages in rural India are linked to availability of adequate
funds for the purpose of asset creation to bridge the rural-urban development gap
for which the Central and State Governments initiated several schemes for creation
of productive infrastructure and gainful rural employment as primary goals. The
focus of schemes such as SGRY, IAY and watershed projects has been on provision
of productive assets/infrastructure creation. In this regard, there is a need to
document stages in release of funds and time lags involved in the selected schemes
and monitor the fund utilisation at all levels of implementation mechanism.
This study was taken up to understand the pattern of flow and utilisation of funds
by the DRDAs and implementing agencies like PRIs at District, Block and village
level for schemes such as SGRY, IAY and watershed in States like Karnataka and Orissa.
* To examine the flow of funds mechanism with reference to stages in release of
funds, time lags involved and pattern of utilisation of funds at three tiers of
* To examine whether funds are thinly distributed for wage employment programmes
such as SGRY, IAY and Hariyali;
* To examine the avenues available for the implementing officials for ensuring durability
of assets; and
* To recommend policy action to improve release mechanism and overall monitoring
arrangements of the scheme.
Study Area and Methodology
The study is based on primary as well as secondary data. The data on flow of funds,
fund utilisation for selected rural development programmes, status of works, expenditure
incurred for asset creation etc. were collected with the help of secondary sources.
Information about the flow of fund by the Central Government to respective DRDA
schemes accounts and the pattern of its utilisation by the various tiers of Panchayati
Raj system were collected. Further, with the help of structured schedules at State,
district, taluk/block and village level, most of the rural development officials
were contacted to know about the effective use of fund utilisation and problems
involved in the implementation of development schemes by them. The reference period
for collection of secondary data is 2001-02 to 2004-05. The field level situation
with respect to benefits of asset creation and its durability are elicited through
Focused Group Discussions.
FLOW OF FUND MECHANISM
In order to enable the DRDAs as co-ordinating and monitoring agency in the area,
funds were made available by the Central Government through telegraphic transfer.
The allotment from Government of India is based on submission of annual work plan,
previous year’s utilisation certificate, provision of non-embezzlement certificate,
receipt of State contributions etc.
In schemes such as SGRY, IAY and IWDP details of calculating time lags against central
releases shows that there were considerable delays regarding the time frame of fund
flow from the Central Government and its transfer to the scheme account in specific
years. In Raichur and Mayurbhanj the delays in funds release for SGRY scheme were
about 87 and 204 days during 2003-04 and 2004-05. With respect to IAY scheme the
estimated time lag figure is 27 days for Raichur in 2003-04 and there were no such
delays for Mayurbhanj with respect to IWDP scheme in the year 2003-04.
FUND UTILISATION FOR ASSET CREATION AT VARIOUS
From fund utilisation perspective, it is essential to frame the guidelines in a
manner which ensures completion of activities within particular period. However,
in selected States the seasonality and the employment requirement across the State
are not taken into account. At times this leads to hiring of machinery/contractors
to complete the activity.
The availability data under SGRY scheme for the two selected States regarding utilisation
of fund indicates that during the period from 2001-02 to 2004-05, the fund utilisation
in Orissa State is more of 160.30 per cent compared to that of Karnataka State.
As regards the utilisation of fund under SGRY scheme according to district-wise
the percentage of utilisation is more in Mayurbhanj i.e. (99.32 per cent) when compared
to that of Raichur i.e., (65.98 per cent). Taluk-wise data shows that percentage
of utilisation of fund was more in Baripada to 99.92 per cent and lowest in Kuliana
90.35 per cent. At Gram Panchayat level the overall average percentage of fund utilisation
during the period 2001-02 to 2005-06, shows that its utilisation is high in Maddlapur
GP to the level of 88.18 per cent and lowest in Koppar GP to the level of 63.58
Under IAY scheme, the State level data during 2001-02 to 2004-05 shows that the
average percentage of fund utilisation is more (94.72 per cent) in Orissa State.
District level data reveals that the percentage utilisation is more in Mayurbhanj
(75.94) in comparison with Raichur (68.23). The taluk level analysis clearly shows
that Deodurg taluk fund utilisation is being observed in Manvi taluk (64.54 per
cent). At gram panchayat level Gabbur GP stand first in the utilisation of fund
(84.53 per cent).
The available data during the period under consideration (i.e. 2001-02 to 2005-06)
for two districts namely Raichur and Mayurbhanj relating to status of works indicates
that the expenditure incurred for 42,358 works is Rs. 11238.09 lakhs which is considered
highest in Mayurbhanj compared to that of Raichur. The number of spillover works
was more in Mayurbhanj i.e., 2235 in comparison with Raichur (910) during the year
Taluk-wise data shows that number of spillover works was recorded highest in Deodurg
taluk and lowest in Kuliana taluk (35). The selected Gram Panchayats of Raichur
district reveals that the highest number of spillovers was recorded in Gabbur GP
(23) and lowest in Kurdi GP (8). The type of assets created in selected Gram Panchayats
of Raichur and Mayurbhanj are drainage, laying of stones/slabs, watershed development
works, construction works, repairs and anganwadi works. The highest proportion of
expenditure were incurred on activities like construction works during 2002-04 to
the level of 68.23 per cent and 57.96 per cent in Koppar Gram Panchayats level (Raichur
District). In Mayurbhanj district, the proportion of expenditure incurred was highest
on roads and repairs to the level of 68.27 per cent and 50.02 per cent during 2004-05
and 2001-02 in Badjode Gram Panchayats. The total number of works taken up in total
Gram Panchayats of selected taluks of Raichur and Mayurbhanj shows that more works
i.e., 2252 were taken up in Manvi taluk with cumulative expenditure of Rs. 48.43
lakhs and less works i.e. 659 with an expenditure of Rs. 213.84 lakhs. The number
of completed works recorded seems to be high in 1982 in Manvi taluk and less works
were reported in Kuliana (597). In a similar manner the number of spillover works
was more in Manvi taluk (270) and less in Kuliana (62) in Kuliana taluk.
It has been observed that in States of Orissa and Karnataka, the institutions/agencies
implementing the programmes such as SGRY, IAY and watershed projects follow the
accrual basis of accounting. But, it is also noted that the government accounts
in India are kept on a cash basis. As a consequence, only actual receipts and payments
during the financial year are taken into account with no outstanding liabilities
or accrued income included. Apart from this, it is noted that at the end of each
period (April-September for the first instalment and October-March for the second
instalment), the Government of Orissa claims a higher utilisation based on work
orders issued. The Central Government calculates the utilisation on the basis of
payments made and reduces the utilisation by the quantum where actual outflow has
The revised accounting procedure, 2001 was followed in selected districts of Raichur
and Mayurbhanj. There were not much lapses in carrying over the closing balance
as opening balance in the next year. In Raichur District there were discrepancies
in opening balances and closing balances of cash book with opening balance and closing
of receipt and payment account of Chartered Accountant. There were also differences
in closing balance as per cash, pass book and as per audit. In addition to this
in some instances, the district such as Mayurbhanj and Raichur faced discrepancies
with respect to closing balance as per audit report and as well as implementing
officer i.e. Rs. 31,33,000 and Rs.60,73,319. The positive aspect of accounting in
study districts are reflected in the form of fund release that are usually placed
in the saving bank accounts. There were absolutely no overdrafts in selected rural
development programmes apart from this there is no possibility of multiplicity of
EFFICACY OF AUDIT
The guidelines provide for auditing of rural development programmes in the district
of Raichur and Mayurbhanj it has been reported that when the audit of activities
were conducted in varied rural development programmes, they found large scale discrepancies.
However, when contacted the official, they reported the same of the lacunae are
discussed at length in house and most of the audit paras were dropped.
IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS
Several problems were identified that act as a stumbling block for the smooth delivery
of funds to the various tiers of Panchayati Raj and its utilisation. The important
problems identified in this regard were shortage of fund with respect to State,
inadequate and irregular flow of funds, and delay in approval of project, discrepancies
in account maintenance. For instance, in case of watershed project (Raichur) the
continuity of the scheme is not ensured either due to lack of fund or delay in receipt
of fund. Due to late disbursal of fund terminating the scheme before completion
of the period, the success of the project got adversely affected. With respect to
merits in a district like Mayurbhanj there were excess funds due to contribution
from tribal departments. However, disbursal of rural development funds to Gram Panchayats
through letter of advice improved the efficacy of fund management.
* The Central Government remits the fund to common bank account of the DRDA / ZP
who later transfer it to the scheme account that involves time lag. But the repercussions
of this kind of pattern in specific year of Raichur and Mayurbhanj resulted in much
delayed delivery of funds to implementing agencies for schemes such as SGRY, IAY
and IWDP. In addition to this, the Government of India fund release asks for State
release within 15 days/one month from the date of Government of India release. But
in Raichur and Mayurbhanj it has been observed that there is delay in the State
* It is suggested that in order to avoid such delays, the Central Government should
take vigilant steps such as immediate remittance of grant to scheme account through
proper and exact maintenance of time factor. The Ministry of Rural Development can
send its fund release order to the DRDA by e-mail in addition to the PO/DRDA in
districts and the secretary to Government in Rural Development to whom it is now
being sent. The Government of India can also issue a “Permanent State Code” while
releasing the funds to va1rious rural development Secretaries. By this measure the
release order of Government of India can be obtained through internet quickly without
searching out from all release orders to various stages shown in website.
* The schemes such as SGRY, watershed and IAY that are subject to this study revealed
that there were stages where in time leads, are mapped at Central level, district
level and intermediate level. This kind of discrepancy existed with regard to release
of funds by Central Government and State Government to DRDA/ZP, thereby from DRDA/ZP
to district panchayat, taluk panchayat and village panchayat. It was observed that
in some instances of Raichur and Mayurbhanj there was no proper correlation between
Central, State Government and DRDAs/ZP as well as Nationalised Banks.
* It is recommended that the resource person from MORD can spell out the do’s and
don’ts for the benefit of the PO/DRDAs while examining their proposals for release
of grants-in-aid and sending of utilisation certificate based on past experiences
and considering the recent short-comings in the proposals sent to the GOI. This
can benefit in both ways for quickening the GOI release and State share. In addition
to this, emphasis should be laid on capacity building in this direction for minimising
* For effective implementation of scheme, timely preparation of the annual action
plan in imperative. It is recommended that action plans for asset creation should
be prepared on the basis of need based and taken up for execution with the aid of
available funds so that the urgent requirements of the village can be fulfilled.
* The delayed distribution of funds by the DRDAs/ZPs results in accumulation of
huge funds in the bank accounts that benefits bankers. In this regard efficient
management of these funds and the goodwill of the rural poor is imperative to place
these funds in term deposits to earn additional interest income.
* It is suggested that this kind of system ensures that the deposits, profits and
interest obtained from rural communities are invested back into those communities
in the form of increased lending. Apart from this, the rural development functionaries
at various levels should design good investment policies, better cash flow and financial
statements. To quote an example for good investment climate, investing in highways
can be viewed as a prospective economic development strategy particularly for underdeveloped
rural areas As a result, activities such as building new roads, widening existing
ones, constructing bridges can result in various benefits for non-metro areas including
improved access to services and jobs for rural residents and better access to customers
for business. This kind of judicious management of funds can yield additional benefits.
* It was noticed that in selected districts of DRDAs/ZP various modes such as cheque,
demand draft are used for delivery of funds to gram panchayats.
* Under this scheme, a ratio of 40:60 per cent is recommended as a policy option.
The underlying reason is normally rainy season that starts from mid-June and continues
up to the end of October. During this period it is very difficult to undertake any
developmental works. So developmental works can be taken up from April to mid–June
and then from November to March in a financial year. Thus more funds should be made
available during the period from November to March and thus 40:60 per cent funds
release will be ideal. As far as carryover fund is concerned it is recommended that
the fund can be utilised prudently on spillover works instead of disturbing the
current years allocated fund.
* It is found that in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa State, the second instalment
funds were released for the period under consideration (2001-02 to 2005-06) in the
months of February, 2002, October 2002, March 2004, December 2004 and December 2005.
But since the working season starts from November, the ideal month for second instalment
fund release should be October. Moreover since consumption of time will be more
for claiming of second instalment from Government of India by submission of proposal
i.e., preparation of records, auditing of accounts by Chartered Accountant funds
would be required more by the State Government at 60 per cent and 50 per cent of
Central Government. This would suffice for expenditure in the remaining period thereof
and also additional could be claimed by better performance districts then.
* On some occasions funds released to DRDAs/ZPs by the Central Government in the
month of March has no possibility of being utilised as it is the end of the financial
year. Such situation demands for treating them as expenditure in Annual Accounts
by simply distributing the funds to implementing agencies.
* To ensure a correct depiction of state of affairs, there should be adoption of
stringent monitoring mechanism by supervising officers and to check measuring authorities.
* It was noticed that though all DRDA/ZPs had received copies of the Revised Accounting
Procedure 2001 they are not truly followed at implementation level with right spirit.
As a consequence there was no proper maintenance of accounts at various levels of
PRIs. The situation demands for extensive training on “Double Entry System of Book
Keeping” especially for block development officials that includes Accounts Officers,
accountants, clerks and progress assistants for further improvement in the accounting
* In discussion with the concerned officials it was found that the delay in release
of funds by Central and State Government are not reported by the DRDA to Government
nor the Government has sought for such report from the DRDA. These matters should
be tackled between Government of India and the State government.
* The fact that the audit reports on rural development schemes should be comprehensively
analysed and reviewed. This enables to identify necessary action points for serious
consideration at the centre via-a-vis State level.
* To avoid carryover of the works for the next year i.e., spillover works there
should be availability of adequate funds and utilisation of carryover fund, timely
monitoring of the progress and quality inspection of works by qualified engineers
and regular visits of DRDA and block level officials. This will provide confidence
to stakeholders and helps in completion of works on time and at reasonable costs.
* In reality the Chartered Accountants are engaged for preparing the account records
of DRDAs. They are not able to audit the accounts of blocks and panchayat level
properly. In this regard the Ministry should give clear instructions about the extent
of accounts to be audited by the Chartered Accountants for more transparency. This
kind of recommendation provides the government with authentic information to control
financial resources in an optimum manner.
* There is no specific policy of the Government to appoint the personnel in DRDAs
to manage the financial functions of DRDAs. In some districts the government has
recruited persons having qualifications of C.A., ICWA, MBA (Finance) to head the
accounts department, and in some other District, officers of State Finance Department
is posted on deputation. In some other districts, Chartered Accountant firms have
been engaged on contract basis to look after the accounts of DRDAs. There is wide
variation in the scale of pay of the Accounts Officers appointed for equal work
and with equal responsibility.
* It is suggested that there should be an uniform policy of government to appoint
Accounts Officers in DRDAs in view of the changes in the accounting system and workload
due to increase in flow of funds under various schemes of the GOI. The accounts
department should be fully equipped with sufficient manpower. The shortfalls in
qualified accountants, experienced and efficient personnel and equipments should
be addressed urgently for a strong and transparent account keeping and reporting
* In practical sense accounts wing of DRDA is very weak in the sense that the Accounts
Officers are having no powers in writing in most of the States to run the DRDA as
per rule to implement schemes as per guidelines.
* As per procedure, Accounts Officers are under control of CEO and Project Director
of DRDA. Sometime A.O. works as per the will of CEO or P.D. The AOs are not authorised
to sign the cheques. Cheques are jointly signed by the CEO and PD of DRDA as a result
there remains every possibility to issue Cheques by PD and CEO by ignoring Accounts
The following steps may be taken to strengthen the DRDA Accounts.
* Accounts wing of DRDA should be under direct control of Central Government / C
and AG and be accountable with them. This would bring uniformity among DRDA all
over India and would eliminate the different patterns in different DRDAs in maintenance
* Cheque signing power may be given to Accounts Officer as they are working under
Project Director and CEO, so proper financial control will be maintained.
* Accounts Officers of DRDA should be given power in writing by the Ministry to
check/verify/audit all records/accounts of implementing agency like block, intermediate
panchayat, village panchayat etc., to prevent lacuna and misutilisation of fund.
* All sorts of financial activities should be under direct control of Accounts Officer
so that the same can minimise the pressure on Project Director and extra time will
be given to provide more attention for implementation and proper supervision for
success of Centrally sponsored schemes.
* Accounts Officers of DRDA may be given power to check the stocks of DRDA and the
implementing agency (Block, Intermediate/Village Panchayat) as well as field activities
as and when required to ascertain proper execution of schemes and utilisation of
* As and when the government introduces new programmes all accounts aspects will
be clearly mentioned in the guidelines and at the same time all Accounts Officers
may be trained for implementation of the programme as no scheme can be successful
if the financial aspects are not taken care of properly.
* It is observed that closing balance is not more than 10 per cent for administrative
expenses. This leads the authorities to utilise the balance of more than 10 per
cent to meet the contingency expenses.
* As DRDA administrative expenses is not a beneficiary oriented scheme like SGSY,
IAY etc., so the same 10 per cent balance may be waived off.